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Ben Hogan was right, golf is a sidearm game

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“What is the secret of the golf swing?” That’s one of the eternal debates in our game, and as with anything as dynamic as the golf swing, I don’t think there is ONE secret. There are similarities to be noticed among the greats of the game however, despite their variety.

That sounds like a contradiction in terms, but if you think about it, we can notice certain motions that most elite level players have in their swing. Not all, but most. GolfWRX readers know me as a teacher who places more emphasis on impact and not how to, but today I want to discuss something that most amateurs get wrong and almost all pros get right. In a very general sense, I’ll state it like this: the golf swing has two components, a vertical one and a horizontal one. Better players get both, but most amateurs get only the vertical part.

The vertical is necessary because the ball is on the ground. The horizontal is required because the ball is aside the player. The VAST majority of mistakes I see club golfers make is that they get too vertical, and not sufficiently horizontal. Golf is very clearly a sidearm game, and the great Ben Hogan may have illustrated it the best.

Most boys growing up, at least in my era, learned to play baseball pretty much before anything else. If they were fortune enough to play infield, I think they had a head start in the game of golf. In the cover image, Hogan is clearly demonstrating how an infielder might throw to first base. This almost completely mimics the motion of a golf swing. Notice I say almost. It is not entirely the same, because remember, the golf ball is on the ground. There is still some up-and-down motion required, but we deal with most of that simply by bending correctly at the hips when we address the golf ball. So to complete the analogy, I think it’s safe to say that golf is baseball with the torso tilted forward.

“It has always seemed to me that, in its general character, this motion is quite similar to the one an infielder makes when he throws to first base after scooping up a ground ball,” Ben Hogan said.

Of course, there is nothing new in this information. Many instructors have written about it, and Ben Hogan’s 5 Lessons: The Modern Fundamentals of Golf was published some 60 years ago. But I will say this: If you have a junior learning to play golf, you would be wise to START with this horizontal orientation FIRST!

I have had many of my juniors begin learning golf on side-hill lies with the golf ball well above their feet before we ever hit a ball on the ground, because once your motion gets too vertical is VERY difficult to change. So assuming you’re in the too-vertical camp, as probably 80 percent of golfers are, let’s discuss what you might do about it.

First, you have to address the motion of your rear elbow (which is the right elbow for right-handed golfers). If it gets too high or stays too far behind your rib cage, the golf club almost always transitions too steeply. Watch Hogan’s motion closely; his right elbow moves well forward in his transition, which “lays the club down,” that is, drops it into a hit position. But — and here’s the key to this motion — notice also that as Hogan pushed the elbow in front of him, he also rotates the LEAD ARM (left for him) counter-clockwise. If he had a secret, I think that was a big part of it. If you pull the elbow in and forward, you can drastically open the face, but by forearm rotation Hogan offset that problem.

The other key to this move when trying to incorporate it is to be sure your hand path stays in! It is easy to send the hand path out when you’re trying it, and that can lead to a severe case of the shanks if you’re not careful.

If you’re one who is and has been too steep, I suggest you try two things:

  1. Hit a LOT of balls with the ball well above your feet on a sidehill lie.
  2. Hit shots off a very tall tee and be sure you don’t ground the club; keep it up as high as the ball itself even with irons. This simulates the hill drill I was just describing.

Once you get the feeling of more around and less up-and-down, you’re on your way. Your attack angle will shallow, and you’ll experience much greater club face consistency from the new arc you are developing.

Final note: My own personal swing flaw for too many years has been this steep transition, and I have always been in search of “the feeling.” Like anyone else, once in a while I get the feeling and it is GREAT!

If you’re interested in my online swing analysis program, click here for more info, or contact me on Facebook.

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Dennis Clark is a PGA Master Professional. Clark has taught the game of golf for more than 30 years to golfers all across the country, and is recognized as one of the leading teachers in the country by all the major golf publications. He is also is a seven-time PGA award winner who has earned the following distinctions: -- Teacher of the Year, Philadelphia Section PGA -- Teacher of the Year, Golfers Journal -- Top Teacher in Pennsylvania, Golf Magazine -- Top Teacher in Mid Atlantic Region, Golf Digest -- Earned PGA Advanced Specialty certification in Teaching/Coaching Golf -- Achieved Master Professional Status (held by less than 2 percent of PGA members) -- PGA Merchandiser of the Year, Tri State Section PGA -- Golf Professional of the Year, Tri State Section PGA -- Presidents Plaque Award for Promotion and Growth of the Game of Golf -- Junior Golf Leader, Tri State section PGA -- Served on Tri State PGA Board of Directors. Clark is also former Director of Golf and Instruction at Nemacolin Woodlands Resort. Dennis now teaches at Bobby Clampett's Impact Zone Golf Indoor Performance Center in Naples, FL. .

46 Comments

46 Comments

  1. Jim

    Aug 15, 2016 at 6:35 pm

    Best biomechanics of all time. NORMAN. A spine tilt and left side turn into a right leg that ‘accepted’ his slight lateral head & tailbone moving to truly shift his weight and ‘load’ the right leg. He made the left side turn & let the ‘weight in motion’ (club head) go where it wanted. Left shoulder hit his chin & that was it. – ‘his plane’ – based on a good set up and a good left sided turn for his physique.
    He was in the middle of the ‘keep your head still, one piece take away’ BS that created more bad backs & slices than any other two tips in golf history.

    Tiger circa 2003 – before he bought all those new muscles compare down the line view to Norman and it’s identical.

    Tiger’s unnecessarily violent ‘squatting’ and late left knee
    snap into hyperextension tore his body up – just like Butch told him it would.

    Norman swung hard & in the book of all crazy stats kept (other than winning majors) he is second only to Woods -with no surgeries.

    • Jim

      Aug 15, 2016 at 10:11 pm

      I have an extensive video library in my teaching computer couple hundred pros over 4000 swings including Hogan.

      10,000 plus hrs of lessons taughtn hundreds of all types of students from PGA / LPGA, Hogan Tour, Nike Tour State Open winners to profoundly disabled & super senior beginners. There’s 16 swings I show everyone.

      Never a single one from Ben. Probably more BS, confusion & flat out misinterpretations about this dude, what he actually did vs what he thought he was doin vs how it was even illustrated with more pronounced angles to be sure the people reading and looking at drawings ‘got it’

  2. Barry S.

    Aug 14, 2016 at 5:23 pm

    A lot of instructors, so called swing experts don’t understand that Hogan had a huge over swing taking the club way past parallel in his younger days which created lots of big hooks. He knew he had to shorten his swing so he basically tied his upper arms to his body. Jack Nicklaus came out of tour and was criticized for his “flying right elbow”. Hogan wasn’t a long hitter but he learned to control the ball with his short arm swing.

    • Chris

      Aug 15, 2016 at 3:03 pm

      Ben Hogan was not a long hitter? Yeah ok, some experts estimate his swing speed in the 120 mph range ..

  3. stephenf

    Aug 12, 2016 at 8:19 am

    Never understood the logic in allowing every twit to comment, but they still do.

    In what way does this article have anything to do with “glorifying people in general” or “glorifying a person from long ago,” as opposed to “observing qualities that work well in anybody’s swing, and are exemplified to a large extent in Hogan’s swing”?

    And anyway, if you have a problem with somebody “glorifying” one of the guys on the list of the three or four greatest players in history, and widely acknowledged as the player who had the modern golf swing mostly figured out before other people did, that’s really your problem. The burden of proof is on you, and no, your opinion isn’t as valid as anybody else’s just because you breathe air and take up space. There is such a thing as an established principle, and if you want to defeat it or disprove it, you start from zero and make a case. The usual internet mode of “I declare my opinion” is worthless here, as it is in most matters, actually.

  4. AE

    Aug 11, 2016 at 3:24 pm

    Hope to see an article about people -the minority – who are more horizontal than vertical, which is my main issue.
    no divots, shallow angle of attack, main miss is either a pull dead left of the target line or pull hook.

    • Dennis clark

      Aug 14, 2016 at 12:07 pm

      I doubt it, It’s so rare…most people who are flat steepen it coming down. I’d like to see your video.

    • Matt

      Aug 28, 2016 at 2:21 pm

      You should read his newest post. It’s most likely that you are shallowing the club late in the downswing, which doesn’t mean at all that you are too horizontal. Most people that are too vertical do something later in the downswing to flatten it out. I have a very shallow angle of attack and still am too vertical coming down.

  5. Jim Losito

    Aug 11, 2016 at 8:26 am

    I played short stop for many years. I never threw sidearm, I came directly over the top to first base.

  6. Regis

    Aug 10, 2016 at 12:16 pm

    Dennis. Thanks. I had to rebuild my swing after a protracted illness a few years ago. I took a lesson last week and my fundamentals were all in good shape. Still I thought something was missing and it rears its ugly head too often on the course. Coming down 17 yesterday I realized I wasn’t getting through the shot properly. I pictured the example of skipping a stone. Today your article is in my inbox . As to the detractors here , if they can take issue with the Modern Fundamentals you’re in good company

  7. ta

    Aug 10, 2016 at 11:26 am

    So, this article quotes Hogan before he had to change his swing from the hook to the cut, right? Otherwise this whole sidehill lies and swinging around thing is all completely wrong. The article should have talked about how to block everything out so as to never hook, which is what Hogan did to start winning, instead of his massive pull hooks with which he struggled for the first 10 years of his career.

  8. 4pillars

    Aug 10, 2016 at 8:19 am

    Without 3D data and kinematic sequence this is meaningless.

    In any event Golf was here first.

    Better to say that baseball is easy golf played on the horizontal.

  9. Hogan

    Aug 10, 2016 at 2:05 am

    Now, if you don’t mind….

  10. Bal oney

    Aug 10, 2016 at 1:20 am

    WhatEV! IF this were true, why did he work so hard to fade the ball and not just play the mega-hook that he got from doing exactly this sidearm move? He could easily have figured out a different way to hit the ball than build mega-heavy clubs with ultra-flat lies and open faces. He could have just aimed dead left, with a strong left hand grip and an open stance and come over the top and played a giant slice, but instead fought to hit it with the sidearm the whole time. If he couldn’t manipulate and bend and weigh his clubs his way, he would never have been able to have his swing that he built.
    So it’s not all about the sidearm move.
    Sometimes the short stop is able to scoop the ball up in this way but has to flip it sidearm AND fling it quick left with a hooking motion because his body is heading towards home plate, instead of leading with his shoulders open and throwing a cutter fade.
    Don’t pay any mind to this baloney article

    • Matt

      Aug 28, 2016 at 2:24 pm

      This has nothing to do with drawing or fading the ball. Look at guys like Dustin Johnson and Sergio that both have this shallowing move to start their downswing (along with damn near every player on tour) and hit fades. Just because someone is “shallowing” or “flattening” their downswing does not ever mean that they will draw it.

  11. Jamie Jones

    Aug 9, 2016 at 11:26 pm

    Two words…Shawn Clement. 24 million viewers can’t be wrong.

  12. Simplton

    Aug 9, 2016 at 10:26 pm

    Want to get the side arm thing down….just buy (Or build yourself one out of pc pipe) The Inside Approach, a training gimmick from about 15 years ago…hell even Jack Nicklaus endorsed it..also very good to help get rid of slice with the driver…..

  13. Anti-Smizzle

    Aug 9, 2016 at 6:22 pm

    If only the ‘hardcore’ flippers had a clue!!!

  14. Nolanski

    Aug 9, 2016 at 6:00 pm

    I’ve read Mr. Hogan’s book 3 times now and it’s seriously a must own book for any golfer. This video is the cherry on top though!

  15. anyone notice

    Aug 9, 2016 at 5:07 pm

    The Great Hogan didn’t really lift his front heel off the ground? Wonder if Chamblee would suggest a little heel lift to Hogan?

  16. Dennis clark

    Aug 9, 2016 at 5:03 pm

    Authors note: this is NOT an article about Hogans swing. It means to say that if you’re too steep the images and advice he offered can help you. No model swing is perfect for everyone!

  17. Roger

    Aug 9, 2016 at 5:03 pm

    Great article. I would LOVE some advice on the opposite problem: I’m much too horizontal (both in backswing and downswing), and not enough vertical. I know its off topic, but would greatly appreciate any suggestions!

  18. acemandrake

    Aug 9, 2016 at 3:20 pm

    Swing “through” NOT “at” or “down” (& get your body out of the way)
    Feel loose & athletic

  19. Sometimes a Smizzle

    Aug 9, 2016 at 3:07 pm

    I honestly prefer some of the modern swings like Bubba, young tiger woods, and jb holmes. I swing most like jb. Not a lot of hinge and lots of speed.
    I am sure you know that people worship at the altar of Hogans swing, so why kick the hornets nest Smizzle?

    • ooffa

      Aug 9, 2016 at 4:57 pm

      Kolfpro must be Hogan’s mother. Very supportive of her little boy. Why couldn’t you buy a color camera for your boy so we would not have to look at black and white photos of that goofy swing.

    • stepehenf

      Aug 12, 2016 at 8:10 am

      “Prefer” them for what? Early retirement? Inconsistency? Underachievement?

    • Sometimes a Smizzle

      Aug 12, 2016 at 9:57 pm

      still working on that 58 ???? Got to crack par first. I have almost shot par a few times on 9 holes. If i ever do it, i will finally move back a set of tees. I average 305 off the tee and 1.9 putrs per hole. I hope to crack par this season at least once.

  20. kolfpro

    Aug 9, 2016 at 2:29 pm

    OK with that statement you are now officially and imbecile!

  21. Marty Mosse

    Aug 9, 2016 at 1:43 pm

    Hogan had one of the worst looking swings ever. It’s clear he had the work ethic of a dead Ethiopian

  22. forgedforever

    Aug 9, 2016 at 1:07 pm

    This makes a lot of sense to me, especially when I see Mr. Clark’s estimation that 80 percent of golfers are in the “too steep camp.” I learn visually, and it is easy to see golfers having problems because their swings are too steep. I have always felt that I need to have a shallower angle of attack myself. Another thing that caught my attention in the article was the recommendation that those of us who are too steep practice hitting from sidehill lies with the ball above our feet. I am always more comfortable hitting this shot that when the ball is below my feet. Now I know why! Thanks for the information!

  23. mr b

    Aug 9, 2016 at 11:38 am

    great article. this echos other instructors lessons to “lead with the right elbow.” The forearm rotation is definately key here so you don’t leave the clubface wide open. would like to see some more videos here to give more visual explanations…

  24. JW

    Aug 9, 2016 at 11:38 am

    Dennis, does rotating the lead arm counter-clockwise accomplish anything else besides offsetting the trail elbow action? For example, is proper rotation of the lead arm a prerequisite for proper rotation of the lead shoulder? And/or will it help someone who has a hand path that works too vertically?

    • dennis clark

      Aug 9, 2016 at 6:16 pm

      it counteracts the opening of the face if one “lags” by pulling on the handle. If you just do a horizontal tug the face will be open, so rotate the lead forearm to square the face.

  25. juststeve

    Aug 9, 2016 at 11:13 am

    Is Ben Hogan really a universal model applicable to everyone, particularly the recreational golfer who spend far more time earning a living than practicing golf, and whose main problem is slicing the ball, not hooking the ball?

    • Loz

      Aug 9, 2016 at 12:24 pm

      Especially as his body was a bit freakish, so I saw mentioned in a video recently. Very long reach for a fairly small man. For most of us it’s not physically possible to get into many of his swing positions due to not having the same body dimensions.

    • Justin

      Aug 9, 2016 at 2:44 pm

      Too vertical often equates to an over the top move, which translates into a pull or a slice every time. Until you can eliminate coming over the top, you should never watch an instructional video that tries to teach you something else. To me, coming over the top is the ONE THING you cannot do if you want to have fun playing golf. The vast majority of amateurs have an over the top move and it’s much harder to eliminate than it seems and this is because of the “vertical” focus. Baseball players often make fairly good golfers because a true golf swing is only slightly more vertical than a baseball swing.

      • Dennis clark

        Aug 9, 2016 at 4:59 pm

        You can get too steep from inside too. But working on more around from inside covers it all.

    • Dennis clark

      Aug 9, 2016 at 8:21 pm

      No he’s only a model for those too steep. Like the article says. There is no universal model.

  26. Loz

    Aug 9, 2016 at 10:22 am

    I’m 6′ 4″ and have always been a good long iron player and generally poor wedge player. I typically hit better shots from a side hill lie as you mention. Trackman Maestro (Joseph Mayo, I think) did a great video about throwing a frisbee which might be worth taking a look at.

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Clement: This wrist position can add 30 yards to your drive

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Drop the mic on how the wrists should load and be positioned for compressive power, accuracy, and longevity! There is a better way, and this is it!

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Short Game University: How to hit wedges 301

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In golf, there is nothing harder than judging a flop shot over a bunker to a tight pin out of long grass. Why? Because there are so many variables to account for — in addition to what you can and cannot do with a wedge. In fact, up until very recently in the world of wedge design, we were limited to only increasing the landing angle to stop the ball, because relying on spin from this lie and this close to the green was next to impossible.

Now with the advent of things like raw faces, different CG locations, new groove design, and micro-ribs between the grooves, we can now spin the ball out of lies that we never could have done so before. This is not to say that you can now zip the ball back from these types of lies, but we are seeing spin rates that have skyrocketed, and this allows us to not open the face as much as we needed to do before in order to stop the ball.

Before we get into the shot around the green itself, let’s talk a bit about wedge design. For that, I called a great friend of mine, Greg Cesario, TaylorMade’s Staff Manager to help us understand a bit more about wedges. Greg was a former PGA Tour Player and had a big hand in designing the new Milled Grind 3 Wedges.

Cesario said: “Wedge technology centers on two key areas- the first is optimizing its overall launch/spin (just like drivers) on all shots and the second is optimum ground interaction through the geometry of the sole (bounce, sole width, and sole shape).”

“Two key things impact spin: Groove design and face texture. Spin is the secondary effect of friction. This friction essentially helps the ball stick to the face a little longer and reduces slippage. We define slippage as how much the ball slides up the face at impact. That happens more when it’s wet outside during those early morning tee times, out of thicker lies, or after a bit of weather hits. Our Raised Micro-Ribs increase friction and reduce slippage on short partial shots around the round – that’s particularly true in wet conditions.”

“We’ve been experimenting with ways to find optimal CG (center of gravity) placement and how new geometries can influence that. We know that CG locations can influence launch, trajectory and spin. Everyone is chasing the ability to produce lower launching and higher spinning wedge shots to help players increase precision distance control. In that space, moving CG just a few millimeters can have big results. Beyond that, we’re continuing to advance our spin and friction capabilities – aiming to reduce the decay of spin from dry to fluffy, or wet conditions.”

Basically, what Greg is saying is that without improvements in design, we would never be able to spin the ball like we would normally when it’s dry and the lie is perfect. So, with this new design in a wedge like the Milled Grind 3 (and others!), how can we make sure we have the optimal opportunity to hit these faster-stopping pitch shots?

  1. Make sure the face is clean and dry
  2. Open the blade slightly, but not too much
  3. Set the wrists quicker on the backswing to increase the AoA
  4. Keep the rear shoulder moving through impact to keep the arms going

Make sure the face is clean and dry

If your thought is to use spin to stop the ball quicker under any situation, then you must give the club a chance to do its job. When the grooves are full of dirt and grass and the remaining exposed face is wet, then you are basically eliminating any opportunity to create spin. In fact, if you decide to hit the shot under these conditions, you might as well hit a flop shot as this would be the only opportunity to create a successful outcome. Don’t put yourself behind the eight-ball automatically, keep your club in a clean and dry condition so you have the best chance to do what you are capable of doing.

Open the blade slightly, but not too much

Without going into too much extra detail, spinloft is the difference between your angle of attack and your dynamic loft. And this difference is one of the main areas where you can maximize your spin output.

Too little or too much spinloft and you will not be able to get the maximum spin out of the shot at hand. With wedges, people equate an open clubface to spinning the ball, and this can be a problem due to excessive spinloft. Whenever you have too much dynamic loft, the ball will slide up the face (reduced friction equals reduced spin) and the ball will float out higher than expected and roll out upon landing.

My thought around the green is to open the face slightly, but not all the way, in efforts to reduce the probability of having too much spinloft during impact. Don’t forget under this scenario we are relying on additional spin to stop the ball. If you are using increased landing angle to stop the ball, then you would obviously not worry about increasing spinloft! Make sure you have these clear in your mind before you decide how much to open the blade.

Opened slightly

Opened too much

One final note: Please make sure you understand what bounce option you need for the type of conditions you normally play. Your professional can help you but I would say that more bounce is better than less bounce for the average player. You can find the bounce listed on the wedge itself. It will range between 4-14, with the mid-range bounce being around 10 degrees.

Set the wrists quicker on the backswing to increase the angle of attack

As we know, when debris gets in between the clubface and the ball (such as dirt/grass), you will have two problems. One, you will not be able to control the ball as much. Secondly, you will not be able to spin the ball as much due to the loss of friction.

So, what is the key to counteract this problem? Increasing the angle of attack by setting the wrists quicker on the backswing. Making your downswing look more like a V rather than a U allows less junk to get between the club and the ball. We are not using the bounce on this type of shot, we are using the leading edge to slice through the rough en route to the ball. Coming in too shallow is a huge problem with this shot, because you will tend to hit it high on the face reducing control.

Use your increased AoA on all of your crappy lies, and you will have a much better chance to get up and down more often!

Keep the rear shoulder moving through impact to keep the arms going

The final piece of the puzzle through the ball is speed through the pivot. You cannot hit shots around the green out of tall grass without keeping the club moving and having speed. A reduction of speed is obvious as the club enters into the tall grass, but you don’t want to exacerbate this problem by cutting off your pivot and letting the arms do all the work.

Sure, there are times when you want to cut off the body rotation through the ball, but not on the shot I am discussing here. When we are using spin, you must have speed to generate the spin itself. So, what is the key to maintaining your speed? Keeping the rear shoulder rotating long into the forward swing. If you do this, you will find that your arms, hands, and club will be pulled through the impact zone. If your pivot stalls, then your speed will decrease and your shots will suffer.

Hopefully, by now you understand how to create better shots around the green using the new wedge technology to create more spin with lies that we had no chance to do so before. Remembering these simple tips — coupled with your clean and dry wedge — will give you the best opportunity to be Tiger-like around the greens!

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An awesome drill for lag that works with the ball!

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Many lag drills have come and gone in this game because they have a hard time working when the ball is there! How many times do you hear about someone having a great practice swing and then having it all go away when the ball is there? This one is a keeper!

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