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Opinion & Analysis

Part 1: What constitutes a truly professional club fitting analysis?



One of the least understood areas related to golf equipment is the matter of what constitutes a truly professional custom club fitting analysis. Over the past 10 years, club fitting technology has evolved from trial and error to a practice that is verified by technical research and analytical experience.

Even with the advancements of club fitting technology – which have been plentiful — and the advancements that are sure to come in the future, the best club fitters will always possess a combination of technical knowledge from years of study combined with judgment that is only acquired by the experience of fitting different golfers and learning from each encounter.

The biggest hurdle golfers face in their desire to be custom fit is an understanding of what constitutes a professional club fitting analysis. To many hitting numerous drivers on a golf simulator in a big box retail store until a sales person says “this is the one” constitutes being fit. A professional club fitting experience, however, is much more than that. It is a process that requires the analysis of numerous measurements of golfers and their existing clubs combined with an extensive observation of their swing characteristics to determine proposed fitting specifications. Those specifications are then verified or adjusted through observations of shot results and feedback from golfers.

Don’t think you’re good enough for a fitting? Think again. The procedures that truly professional club fitters use to fit scratch golfers are the same one they use to fit golfers who shoot in the 100’s. I’ve spent more than 30 years in serious club fitting technical research and have communicated and counseled with hundreds of club fitters. I’m also aware of the confusion among golfers about club fitting, so I wanted to offer an overview to explain what is behind a truly professional club fitting experience.

The Goal of Professional Club Fitting

The goal of a quality fitting analysis is to fully analyze golfers, their swing characteristics and game improvement goals to determine each of the 12 Key Fitting Specifications for every golf club that will allow golfers to play to the very best of their given ability and to be able to benefit the most from lessons they may take from a competent teaching professional.

Let’s get something straight right off the bat. Golfers of average ability, those who shoot between roughly 80 and 100, experience the most visible game improvement from proper fitting. The reason is because a very high level of their inconsistency comes from their inability to control clubs that are too long, too low lofted, too heavy, or too light. Often times, their set makeup is also improper, which magnifies many of the swing mistakes they make.

Don’t get me wrong – an accurate club fitting does not CURE swing mistakes. Rather it reduces the severity and the frequency of less-than-perfect swings to allow golfers to be more consistent than before.

Anything short of this “full specs, full bag” approach to fitting will not deliver maximum game improvement to the golfer. Look at it this way – if a competent club fitter can identify and deliver every one of the key fitting specifications for every club in the bag, why settle for less by going to a place that cannot do that? It will result in less than the maximum possible game improvement and enjoyment.

Professional Club Fitting Inputs and Decision Making Factors

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The above chart (click on it to make it bigger) presents an overview of the “inputs” and “outputs” of a professional full specs fitting analysis. The accumulation of all these factors represents the complete sum of what the professional club fitters need to know to conduct the fitting analysis in a manner that provides all the information from which the most accurate recommendations can be determined. While this chart may seem very extensive and even complicated, I can assure you that for the best club fitters, these areas of information are a routine part of their actions and thought processes during the fitting analysis. Those who are not competent in club fitting won’t be aware of even half of this information necessary to determine a golfer’s best fitting specifications.

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Starting with the light orange boxes on the left, the Key Fitting Specifications lists all the fitting parameters that need to be determined for each club for which the golfer is to be fit. The Technical Data Required lists the reference materials the fitter may need to combine with various points of analysis of golfers and measurements of their current clubs to help determine the Key Fitting Specification requirements. It is also important to ask golfers their opinion of what Golfer Improvement Goals they feel would be of the highest priority for the club fitting experience to help them achieve.

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The light green boxes on the right side of the chart reveal the measurements of the golfer and his/her current equipment along with the observations and specific evaluation points of the golfer’s swing characteristics the fitter needs to know. This is combined with the Technical Data Required to obtain the full complement of inputs from which each of the 12 Key Fitting Specifications for each club are determined.

The light blue boxes in the center of the chart explain what inputs are consulted to determine each of the 12 Key Fitting Specifications for the golfer.

In total, the above chart represents the entire amount of information that is required to determine what each of the 12 Key Fitting Specifications will be for each club being fit. The procedures and the time required can and will vary from one club fitter to the next depending on the fitter’s knowledge, commitment, experience and efficiency.

Please understand this analysis is offered to make golfers aware of the depth of knowledge, information and experience that the very best club fitters strive to learn to guide golfers into the best equipment for them. By no means do all or most of the people who offer club fittings follow or possess this level of fitting knowledge. Some do, however, and in the science and craft of club fitting this is the pinnacle to offer golfers the utmost in a fitting analysis.    

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Tom Wishon is a 40-year veteran of the golf equipment industry specializing in club head design, shaft performance analysis and club fitting research and development. He has been responsible for more than 50 different club head design firsts in his design career, including the first adjustable hosel device, as well as the first 0.830 COR fairway woods, hybrids and irons. GolfWRX Writer of the Month: February 2014 Tom served as a member of the Golf Digest Technical Advisory Panel, and has written several books on golf equipment including "The Search for the Perfect Golf Club" and "The Search for the Perfect Driver," which were selected as back-to-back winners of the 2006 and 2007 Golf Book of the Year by the International Network of Golf (ING), the largest organization of golf industry media professionals in the USA. He continues to teach and share his wealth of knowledge in custom club fitting through his latest book, "Common Sense Clubfitting: The Wishon Method," written for golf professionals and club makers to learn the latest techniques in accurate custom club fitting. Tom currently heads his own company, Tom Wishon Golf Technology, which specializes in the design of original, high-end custom golf equipment designs and club fitting research for independent custom club makers worldwide Click here to visit his site,



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  2. David

    Nov 20, 2014 at 3:05 pm

    A pet peeve of mine is “high kick point vs low kick point”. If a fellow hits too low, in his opinion, and wants a higher trajectory, he requests a lower kick or bend point to flick the ball a little higher. The opposite is true for a golfer who hits too high. I’ve been a hobby builder for a dozen years and I say this is a load of manure. If you want the ball higher, get a more flexible tip. If you want the ball flight lower, tip trim or get a stiffer tip.
    Recently, a friend bought new TaylorMade irons. An expensive experiment. He was fitted by a part time college kid at a local golf specialty store. He wasn’t impressed with the clubs and wanted me to check them. I have a Neufinder and found the tips to be L flex. They’re labeled R flex. The lengths were too long and the loft and lie of each club wrong. In effect, the 7 iron was nearly a 5 iron, etc. throughout the whole set. This probably suits many average players who think they’re a stiff or a regular flex and should actually be playing a flex or two lighter. They’ll hit higher and longer.
    So, if a new TM 5 iron is actually a 3 iron, will it stay in the bag or be replaced with a hybrid? How many wedges will we carry? Five?

  3. Pat

    Nov 13, 2014 at 1:16 pm

    The difference in true club fitting and custom building is night and day compared to the crap off the rack. MOST GOLFERS DO NOT FIT INTO THE GARBAGE THAT THEY SELL OFF THE RACK AT GOLFSMITH. All golfers no matter their skill level and handicap, would benefit highly from a proper club fitting. For the longest time, before club fitting was readily available and affordable, I played stock clubs off the shelf that were s flex, standard l/l/l and mostly hit nasty duck hooks. After a proper fitting from Dave at tourcustoms, I found out that I need all my irons bent to 1 degree flat, play 1/4 inches short of standard and xx flex shafts. As for my woods and hybrids, I found that mid launch/low spin x flex shafts that were tip stiff and tipped an inch were optimal for my swing. My handicap immediately dropped 7 strokes. To all the golfers out there that are too stubborn or too cheap, get fitted. It’s and investment that is worth the time and little money to see a significant improvement in your game. The game is hard enough. Using clubs customized/optimized for your swing makes it easier.

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  6. J

    Nov 9, 2014 at 5:08 pm

    No offense to the profession and the true craft of club building, but the parameters gather here are way too much for 99% of golfers. I agree that grip size, club length, and lie angle are crucial in fitting an individual, but the rest boils down to preference and should be determined on Trackman. Is my dispersion minimal? Does the set have the trajectory, carry and spin that feels right? Do I like a light club or heavy one? Can I tweak a few lofts to achieve my carry distances without dramatically changing bounce? Can I play with the clubs, look at my divots and then make a few minor lie adjustments? Trackman (not into a net) can answer all of these, by yes you guessed it…trial and error. This should get 99% of golfers into a set that will maximize their abilities.

    • Tom WIshon

      Nov 11, 2014 at 6:32 pm

      With complete respect, the 12 key specs are NOT too much for any golfer who has the ability to get 98% of his shots airborne and hits errant shots badly more often than not. One thing that golfers without an awareness of how the 12 key fitting specs combine to determine success vs not so much success with clubs is that a very BIG reason avg golfers struggle with their equipment is because several of the off the rack specs are making the clubs so much more difficult for them to hit.

      45-46″ drivers, lofts too low on 3w’s and 1/3 of the irons, one single shaft weight, one single swingweight and one single grip size can be a real problem for the avg player who doesn’t have good swing characteristics and doesn’t have above average golf athletic ability.

      Let’s take the 94 shooter who is 5’7, big hands, stronger than average, 3/4 length slash swing over the top, slices the ball and hits low burners to pop ups. Get this guy into an off the rack 45-46″ driver at D1 with a 65g stock shaft, with a std grip with thwe wrong loft and no face angle help and the game is not going to be much fun.

      But get him into a 43-43.5″ driver with a 2 hook face angle with the right loft, flatter lie and a 90g shaft with a D5 swingweight and oversize grip and bet the farm that he’s got a lot better chance coming home with a smile and then wanting to come back and play again and again.

      And getting the 12 key specs better matched to him is the reason – length, loft, lie, face angle, shaft weight, shaft flex, bend profile, total weight, swingweight, set makeup, clubhead model and grip style and size.

      Let’s put this another way. It is possible just like I wrote out all the inputs and outputs in a professional fitting for a bio-mechanics expert to write out ALL OF THE MOTIONS OF THE FULL GOLF SWING, one at a time from takeaway to follow through. Put all those things that you have to do in your swing down on paper, one after the other, and most people would believe there is no way that they can do all of that, in its proper sequence and timing.

      So all I did was write down the things that every good clubfitter has to routinely think about to come up with any golfer’s best specs – whether scratch or 100 shooter. And yes, on paper it looks like a blizzard of information and can convey the thought you had that this is too much.

      But it’s not. This is the routine. These are the things we have to measure, analyze and know to come up with the specs that best match each different golfer’s size, strength, athletic ability and swing characteristics.

      Thanks for your comment so I had the chance to explain this more clearly.

      • leftright

        Nov 11, 2014 at 7:11 pm

        Tom, with all due respect, a 90+ golfer will not benefit from anything but lessons. I am a skeptic because golf existed for a hundred years without this technology. I also know this technology has ruined many a good golf swing by making him/her too mechanical in their thinking. This is nothing more than another way to produce money for the golf business. It gives someone a job who might know a golf swing or two. First of all graphite shafts have all but ruined many golfers both technically and economically. I have played to a +2 but now am a 4 because I’m almost 60 and play when I can and all of this “stuff” has ruined the natural golf swing. Everyone wants to swing like Adam Scott and Tiger and the really good ball strikers that have “ever” existed have all had homemade golf swings. Moe Norman, Lee Trevino, Johnny Miller, Byron Nelson, Ben Hogan, Fred Couples all had homemade golf swings. I know for a fact graphite shafts are a racket and I can find any 100.00 shaft that will perform like a 1000.00 shaft. Puring has been proved to be ludicrous and I can take the label off and no one, not even touring pros would know which iron or which ball they were hitting, much less what shaft or head. I had a guy hit a c8 club and he guessed D4 and vice versa because it’s all in the weighting. I had one of your performance fittings. The whole analysis, spent a lot of money and literally nothing changed. The only golfer that would benefit from substantial swing analysis would be the super high swing speed person and even then I would recommend, slow it down, keep it in this hemisphere and then they could us standard stuff. Golf is becoming way too expensive and with the economy the way it is I see golf going back to a rich man’s game very quickly. If I was the USGA, R&A or PGA tour I would outlaw graphite. It has caused more frustration, added expense and bad golf swings than everything else combined. No two shafts are alike…period and herein lies the fraud perpetuated on the golfing public. I can take two Matrix TP shaft at 1200.00 apiece and they are not identical by any stretch of the imagination and I can also produce a 100.00 shaft with essentially the same characteristics but the pain when you buy it is much less. Graphite is like Bentley’s and Chevrolet’s, it’s all in the appearance and price but both get you to point B and both can go fast and straight. The Bentley is handmade and the chevrolet mass produced but the chevrolet may be the one that doesn’t break down. Trouble is the Bentley might kill you because of the specifics that don’t apply to 98% of golfers.

        • Tom WIshon

          Nov 12, 2014 at 2:22 pm

          There are for sure a whole lot of more expensive products that don’t perform any better than some that are much less. And there are many areas in equipment where the hair is split too fine so the outcome is neither significant or worth it.

          Not that way with full specs fitting for the average player who shoots from 80s to 100, I can assure you from decades of fitting research, teaching fitting, and then listening to feedback from MANY clubfitters over the years.

          Now if we still lived in the days of 43″ drivers with the lofts of 30+ yrs ago, no question you would find more average players not struggle as much with their equipment as they do today. I cannot stress enough how bad the 46″ drivers, lack of face angle options, 14* 3 woods, 3, 4, 5 and 6 irons that are two irons stronger than the past are for the average players and how much stuff like this IS preventing these golfers from playing better AND from adapting to swing changes from lessons sooner or ever.

          One thing I wish is for every low handicap player to have the experience to wake up one day and be a 16, 20 or 25 hdcp golfer with below average golf athletic ability and live with that for a while to then be able to see just how much proper fitting could help them play better. Please understand I am NOT talking about proper fitting turning a 23 into a 9 or a 16 into a 5. Such big changes will ALWAYS require better swing characteristics. I am talking about turning a 23 into a 16 or a 16 into an 11 through proper full specs fitting.

          And that does happen a lot more than single digit players think it does.

        • Kevin PGA

          Dec 27, 2014 at 4:50 pm

          The origin of the golf profession was club making. Professionals like Old and Young Tom Morris would painstakingly whittle and sand hickory shafts until they performed properly for their clients. Properly fitted golf clubs reward and encourage the proper motion and give proper feedback for incorrect motion.

          As a golf professional I can tell you about a good swing, and have you make a good swing, but if the club creates a low slice from that swing, you are going to change the swing to make the ball go properly. Off the rack clubs are mostly likely different from club to club, you would have to learn 13 different swings to play well. Properly fit clubs are consistent throughout the set so that when you make the correct swing taught by your professional you are reward with a shot that goes where you want it to and how you want it to get there.

          I have had students that bought fitted clubs call me exasperated by how poorly they were hitting the ball. Because the clubs were giving proper feedback, I could say “Look the divots are toe deep, that means you are coming over the top and casting….” and in five minutes my student is striping the ball and is happy.

          Custom fit clubs can increase enjoyment of the game and thus increase rounds played, and that is what golf needs.

      • BR

        Nov 12, 2014 at 11:43 pm

        Thank you for the article and further guidance via your responses. I totally agree that almost anyone can benefit from these 12 fitting specs. Proper professional club fitting is a crucial step necessary for quality golf. Personally I can not imagine risking monetary investment for new clubs without knowing my abilities via these 12 specs (#’s 1,2,3, & 5 are of particular priority for me). #’s 3 & 5 specifically have helped save a small fortune regarding proper shaft fit. I sometimes wonder how I did not leave the game since I gambled and listened to marketing for 30+ years for my golf equipment decisions—big waste of time/$$. I am so thankful for your fitting articles, books and web site. Using these fitting specs I have lowered my hncp. Yes I took lessons and practiced more efficiently but I had clubs or instruments that fit my swing/abilities. I realize there are some natural athletes that can just pick up any club and have success, they are few and far between. I am not one. I just know since educating myself regarding club fitting my whole game has improved.

  7. Patricknorm

    Nov 8, 2014 at 9:33 am

    Hello Tom. I’m going to throw you a little love. I read your article about a year ago regarding club fitting on Golf WRX. I went to your webpage and found three fitters in the Toronto area. I settled on Brian Morrisey in Welland Ontario.
    I’m currently a 5.5 factor which usually translates into a 6 handicap.
    What proper club fitting did for me is measurably improve my 150 yards in scoring, especially the gapping with my shorter irons. Brian was expcetionally thorough and would not let me go until I hit all my irons in the middle of the club face. I’ll have to admit the whole process was intense but I wanted the precision of my irons to be close to perfect.
    My three wedges pretty saved my round when I wasn’t striking the ball well.
    I know that if I mishit an iron its on me. But most important, the clubs are fit for me and I can trust the yardages under pressure. I played 13 senior tournaments last season and the least of my worries were my clubs.
    That’s what club fitting is meant to do. So for me to get better, it’s sticking to my coach’s methods through practising and getting a little fitter.

  8. Rick Norton

    Nov 7, 2014 at 2:13 pm

    Then i WASTED $250 on a full bag fitting. Because mine was in essence a hit these shaft & head combinations…. Then “this is the one” came about for irons & woods. Putter….hit these only. No lie angle check on anything, Only hand measurement and wrist to floor. And that was NOT at a big box store, but at an outside based club fitter.

    • leftright

      Nov 11, 2014 at 7:13 pm

      It’s fraud and should be called as such.

    • Pat

      Nov 13, 2014 at 1:25 pm

      You got a horrible club fitting then from some uneducated and greedy individual. A good club fitter will not skip any details including lie angle, length, spin numbers, angle of attack, etc. If you live in Florida, get a club fitting from Dave from tourcustoms. He is one of the best in the business and is meticulous when it comes to the smallest of details.

  9. Fran

    Nov 6, 2014 at 1:10 pm

    How do you feel about Mizuno’s Swing DNA system Tom? I’m going to buy a set of Mizuno’s next year and was looking at being fit by this system. Is this the correct way to go?

    • Tom WIshon

      Nov 6, 2014 at 4:30 pm

      I honestly cannot comment on that publicly because I have never had access to it to be able to dig into finding what it outputs for different golfer swing types. So I am sorry to say I cannot answer your question definitively. Once thing to keep in mind with ANY shaft fitting – the golfer’s sense of FEEL preference for the bending action of the shaft (if the golfer has such) outweighs any shaft fitting done traditionally through analysis of clubhead speed + transition force + downswing tempo + release point + strength, or, done with any sensor equipped device and software output.

      This is why the best fitters always ask the golfer if he has any specific feel preferences for his shaft (light, heavy, flexible at transition, stiff at transition, flexible kick feel through impact, firm feel through impact, etc) so he can know whether to modify his traditional output for the shaft to meet the golfer’s feel requirements. Not sure if there is any feel input with the Mizuno device.

    • Harry

      Nov 11, 2014 at 4:00 pm

      I would suggest not to define yourself to just one OEM. Go to a serious clubfitter who knows the in and outs of a golfclub, swing and swing tempo’s etc. Let him/her have you play different clubs and maybe a custom build set will be the better choice. If you feel comfortable with the clubfitter, and you trust him/her. follow the advice they give and ask for some garanty.

  10. tom stickney

    Nov 6, 2014 at 12:19 pm

    Great article Tom…you are right on the money…as ALWAYS!

  11. Trey

    Nov 6, 2014 at 11:05 am

    For everyone reading this, Tom’s advice is spot on. The only thing that I will add is that it helps to have some semblance of a decent golf swing. As it was suggested earlier among the comments, a golfer with a terrible swing should first learn the basics prior to being fitted. From there, the right equipment makes a world of difference. In the three months since Tom recommended a local fitter to me, my handicap has plummeted into the single digits, and if my putting were any good, I’d be playing mid-70s golf very consistently. If you play the game regularly, it pays tremendously to be properly fit.

    I was fitted for Wishon Irons and SCOR wedges, and have reversed my fortunes against my playing partners ever since. I’m regularly the one collecting on the 19th hole now, after months and months of being the one always having to pay up.

    The message is simple. If you are going to invest your time into playing the game, then invest a few dollars into the assurance that you’ll play the game to the best of your ability.

  12. CrushSticks

    Nov 5, 2014 at 11:11 pm

    most of you are looking at this the wrong way. Tom understands that most people aren’t going to go through this process, but he is telling you that you will play better golf if you do. Most of the golfers I deal with in my store overlook any factor but distance when looking at clubs. If they understood how much they could improve the consistency and quality of their mishit shots through proper fitting, it would be a game changer. But it’s just not going to happen. I always try to keep Tom’s words in mind when dealing with fittings, but we live in a distance or nothing world. Funny thing is, with a little quality instruction and properly fit clubs, most people could hit the ball further. Kudos Mr. Wishon. The game needs people like you.

    • leftright

      Nov 11, 2014 at 7:16 pm

      Tom is wanting to guarantee future income. These fitting are nothing more than a way to make more money. He is Tom Wishon and people will pay him big bucks for something you can do yourself with demos and 35 golf balls. The game is too technical and it doesn’t have to be. I have found fitting to be useless most of the time except for the really high swing speed guys, in the 115+ range.

      • Pat

        Nov 13, 2014 at 1:31 pm

        Leftright, you are 100% WRONG. Most golfers do benefit from a good club fitting. I went from duck hooks to dropping 7 strokes immediately after I got fit for the right shafts. Of course I fit into the 120+mph category and need xx flex shafts. However, I have seen with my own eyes, many friends and family that have been custom fit as well with much slower swing speeds that have seen their handicaps drop dramatically as well. You can find great club fitters that do full bag fittings for decent prices. The ones that charge 250+ are the ones that are clearly in it for the money and greedy.

      • Curt

        Dec 27, 2014 at 11:53 am

        Dude, you have a personal axe to grind. Tom is a real professional offering a valuable service. Yes, we all need lessons to have better technique, but we surely do not want to have additional hurdles we can solve before we ever step foot on the golf course – non fitted equipment.

      • marc

        Dec 31, 2014 at 4:47 pm

        I have to say that my experience does not agree with what you are saying. I dropped from a 11 to an 8 in less than a month after getting properly fit and following Tom’s recommendations. I can however, understand how you may feel that way if you’ve been burned. I spent $450 for a “high end full bag fitting” and ended up with crap. I asked Tom for help via email and he pointed me to a couple reputable places in my area. Completely different experience… and cheaper.

  13. Charlie

    Nov 5, 2014 at 10:40 pm

    I would like to hear Tom talk about the step by step process in his fittings. What do you do first? You should write an article about the process of fitting rather than your fundamentals of fitting that you have written about before.

    • Tom WIshon

      Nov 6, 2014 at 11:17 am

      That will come. My original article here was set up as a 2 part article. Part 1 as you read it here, then Part 2 was to take the Blue Boxes of all 12 key specs in the middle of the chart and break them down to explain the fitting analysis for how you looked at the inputs to each of the 12 key specs and made the decision for what each should be.

      Long story short, that was taking too much writing to cover each of the 12 in one second part for the article. So WRX talked me into taking each of the 12 key specs and put each into its own separate article to follow part 1. So that way I could say more about each spec’s determination, and from that, there will be a part 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 in total !!

      WRX wants these weekly so watch for part 2 on the determination of length coming next.

      • Philip

        Nov 6, 2014 at 11:33 am

        All I can say is – WOW! and thank-you. Very much appreciated.

        I built a “tiny” golf workshop and have been gradually tweaking my clubs to better reproduce my natural practice swing as my on-course swing. My understanding of myself on course, my swing, along with cause and effect of equipment specifications and my set-up has increased greatly over the last three years.

        I was going to post a question in the equipment or club making forums on the relationship between club head weight displacement, offset, and face angle (open vs closed) and the effects it seems to have on my swing path and upper/lower body action, but I’ll wait for this series to complete first in case you happen to cover it.

        • Tom WIshon

          Nov 6, 2014 at 4:40 pm

          Philip – because these things may come later in the series rather than sooner, I will be happy to offer some insight on what you ask. As far as having a direct effect on your swing path as you start the downswing, the fitting elements that can do that are length, total weight, headweight (swingweight) and grip size. Offset and Face Angle have nothing to do with whether you shift swing path from one club or swing to the next.

          For golfers who fight going over the top and coming down outside in, when length is too long for the golfer, it can cause them to go more over the top and more outside in. When total weight is too light or too heavy, same thing can happen. When swingweight is too light or too heavy, same thing can happen. Of these, length too long, weighting too light are the worst for causing more swing path problems than will length too short or weighting too heavy.

          The goal of getting the length, total weight and swingweight just right for each golfer is to allow them to start the downswing more in control, to use the hands and arms less to start the downswing, and to have the length/weighting be better matched to the golfer’s tempo, timing, rhythm so that they can achieve a little higher level of swing consistency and swing repeatability.

    • Tom WIshon

      Nov 7, 2014 at 10:50 am

      Charlie – in re-reading your comment, I thought that rather than make you wait, I would be happy to talk about the PROCEDURES of fitting, so you know what goes on in a good fitting. I don’t have all the space here to really dive deep into that but I can offer the procedural overview to tell you what you want to know.

      If you look at the template in my article, you will see the many things that the clubfitter has to know about the golfer. First things first, the clubfitter has to interview the golfer to find out as much as he can about what the golfer feels he needs most improvement on – distance, accuracy, consistency, trajectory or a solution to a feel issue with the clubs. This tells the clubfitter a little more about what to focus on as he makes his own evaluation of what he thinks would help the golfer more.

      The fitter should measure some specs of some of the golfer’s key clubs so he knows where the golfer is NOW with his specs. When the golfer hits warm up shots with his clubs, this helps the fitter get an idea what current specs may be good or less good as he goes forward to find what are the golfer’s best specs.

      As the golfer hits warm up shots from short iron up to driver, THIS IS WHEN THE FITTER IS REALLY DOING HIS SWING AND SHOT EVALUATION – transition, tempo, release, strength and athletic ability, swing path, shot shape tendencies, etc. AND the good fitter is also looking at the swing moves from a standpoint of IS THIS GOLFER AT A LEVEL OF REASONABLE MISS HIT CONSISTENCY THAT FITTING IS GOING TO HELP AND ARE THERE SWING ISSUES THAT ARE GOING TO NEGATE WHAT THE FITTING CHANGES COULD DO.

      After warm up time ends with the driver, the golfer now hits drivers on the launch monitor. Here the fitter is able to see clubhead speed, angle of attack, face delivery, spin, launch angle, etc and how these monitor outputs relate to what the ball flight shape looks like.

      Golfer then does the same thing with a mid iron so the fitter can see launch monitor outputs for the iron. And all during these launch monitor shots, the fitter is CONTINUING TO WATCH THE SWING CHARACTERISTICS to see what the range in variation in his swing moves is.

      All during the time this is all going on, the fitter is thinking about all these cause and effect relationships of the swing characteristics and launch monitor outputs to each fitting spec – the BLUE Boxes in the template. So at this point, the fitter now should have a decent idea of the test club specs he wants the golfer to try out next to start the process of verifying what fitting specs he needs.

      Test club hitting is done with the iron first, watching for changes in the shot shape, launch monitor outputs, AND ASKING THE GOLFER FOR FEEDBACK – looking at these things and thinking what tweaks in the test club specs should be to get better results if possible. Then comes the driver for doing the same thing test club wise.

      This can take some time. This is also where you may see differences in how much time the fitter continues to go through the test club phase. Such differences don’t typially mean a better vs worse fitting at all – usually when a fitter takes much more time, he is just trying to get more and more feedback to keep trying to nail down the final specs.

      Then the fitter knows what the specs should be to help the golfer as much as is possible. At this point the procedure can vary in terms of where you go from there – building final test clubs to have the golfer go play and hit for a week or so to then come back and report results to the fitter; telling the golfer what his final specs are and asking if he’s happy with that to then finalize the clubs to be bought, and so forth.

      Other things that can vary the procedure is whether the golfer wants to be fit only for one part of his set – driver only, irons, or full set, etc.

      Of course I could write a book on the Nth degree procedures, but this is a general overview of the process as we see it to be able to get all the inputs you need and then go through the test club process to know what the golfer needs.

  14. Charlie

    Nov 5, 2014 at 9:04 pm

    I always laugh when people who can’t hit it 50 yards or have never played golf before think they need to be fit for clubs. It’s because people read stuff like this that perpetuates an inept concept. How would you conduct this fitting for an absolute beginner? Since you say it is necessary in the comments, please fill us in.

    • S

      Nov 6, 2014 at 8:59 am

      What seems to be inept here is your belief or theory that a beginner can’t benefit from being fit properly. Obviously, a person who is starting out will not see the benefits (yet) of having a full in-depth fitting as described by Tom. However, most clubs that beginners use are hand me downs or a box set of clubs that gets them started. Problems with just going to the range with hand me downs is the more they use these ill fit clubs, bad habits will develop.

      For example, if a golfer who is 5’7 with long arms who uses a basic boxed set or his friends old set of clubs will probably swing clubs that are too long/upright. As a result, they will swing those clubs to make them work. The longer they swing an upright iron the more upright and steep they will become.

      That obviously can be detrimental to their development and ultimately may discourage them from playing because they cannot make the clubs work. Indian or arrows you ask? In that scenario, it may be more arrow.

      • simon

        Nov 7, 2014 at 3:18 am

        As a pro teaching for years i see many using the wrong type of clubs however for beginners who cant swing the same swing path everytime it makes little difference.Become consistant and then get fit.btw John Daly used a heavy club since he was a kid and it didnt hurt him .My holiday set is an old set of my late fathers pings way too flat for me yet after a few shots i can dial in to desired ball flight…..swing and practice is key and fitting is the iceing on the cake.
        Happy golfing.

    • Tom WIshon

      Nov 6, 2014 at 11:24 am

      The only “fitting” for an actual beginner or very green golfer is to simply get them into clubs which make taking lessons and practicing what they are taught a little easier than what is possible with off the rack clubs today. That means much shorter and higher loft driver, no 3 wood, 5 and 7 wood that are also shorter, no iron lower than a 5 or 6 iron, grips that definitely fit their hands, and weighting that is reasonably suited to their strength.

      Then when the golfer gets to the point that 98% of their shots are airborne, their miss hits are reasonably in the same direction and shape even though they may have a misdirection range from 15yd to 35yd, that’s when the whole fitting can step in to help take them to their next level of improvement.

      Please be aware that with good fitters, they will definitely have several golfers each year that they very kindly inform the golfer to take lessons and get to this point with their game before coming back in to be fit.

  15. CT

    Nov 5, 2014 at 8:52 pm

    This seems more like an advertisement for The Wishon fitting method. Although, I admire many things he says and am glad he is a constant participater in GolfWRX forums, I don’t see major OEM’s ever adopting this process in fitting. Nor do people need this long of a process. You don’t even see Cool Clubs or Club Champion doing this extensive work. How do you measure “wrist cock release?” Someone that is fat and out of shape but swings a 6 iron at 92 mph needs something different than an athletic flat belly with same swing speed and golfing abilities. Ludicrous.

    • Tom WIshon

      Nov 6, 2014 at 11:33 am

      OEMS can’t adopt any form of fitting that determines all 12 key fitting specs for all clubs in the bag because they can’t achieve the sales volume in that business model to reach their required numbers each year. Can’t be done. They’d love to somehow because they are at the wall for new design technology – just look at the “fitting related” things they have offered over the past few years as evidence that they know fitting is the next frontier in club development for golfers – interchange shafts, adjustable hosels, etc.

      But these “fitting related” things they offer still have to be able to be packaged within pre built clubs that can be shipped to all the stores to sell off the rack because that is the only way they can achieve the sales volume they need to reach their required numbers.

      As to the length of this fitting process, the good fitters can do this in 90mins easily. Some in 60mins. Here’s why and how – look at the blue boxes in the middle of the template that show what inputs are consulted to determine each of the 12 key fittting specs. You’ll see that many of the key fitting specs use the same swing inputs as part of their determination. So the good fitters are thinking of several specs all at the same time when they see the golfer’s transition or tempo or release and so forth. That shortens the time for figuring out what all the specs should be.

      They do NOT do this by working on one spec at a time. They do this by thinking of several of the specs at the same time from their analysis of the golfer swing inputs and measurements.

      How do you measure the wrist hinge release? You are trained to either see it by watching when the clubhead starts to move farther away from the body OR they pull out their smart phone (or vid camera) and video the golfer to then watch when the wrists start to unhinge in the downswing. That’s really easy to do today with all the technology we all now have access to.

  16. luis morales

    Nov 5, 2014 at 6:51 pm

    I had a great fitting experience with Tim Mosel out in Denville, NJ. Got TW clubs and it made a big difference (for me). Started at 25 hdcp and finished the year at 18.

    • Dick

      Nov 5, 2014 at 8:53 pm

      Wow, a whole 7 shots? Did you ever think that the secret is in the dirt and maybe you were playing more?

  17. Rodan

    Nov 5, 2014 at 6:19 pm

    I like the list and Tom would know what is needed to properly fit a set of clubs.

    The issue is that of the 4 fittings I have been involved in (a major OEM performance center, 2 national golf fitting/training company franchise stores and a independent award winning club fitter/builder) none have come close to this type of fitting. And I would guess that what i received is similar to what a lot of other players experience.

    It would be nice to know how to get this type of fitting.

    • Carl Truitt

      Nov 5, 2014 at 8:59 pm

      Let me know when you figure it out….I’m in the same boat

    • leftright

      Nov 11, 2014 at 7:20 pm

      Get some demos and practice balls. It is either to flat or too upright. Either to stiff or not stiff enough. If you prefer graphite…good luck. It is a a gamble at best.

  18. Dan Riley

    Nov 5, 2014 at 5:41 pm

    If you go to Tom’s website, you can find a list of club fitters who have been trained in Tom’s methodology. I did. The first meeting he told me that I should take lessons, gain a little consistency, then come back to be fitted. I did.
    When I went back he spent 6 hours evaluating my current equipment and evaluating me and then recommended several options at several price points that would help me to maximize my potential. I went with Wishon heads and component shafts. You can not buy clubs of this quality from the large OEMs. And they fit me perfectly. And cost no more than OEM equipment.
    You can’t get any of this in a big box store.
    GET FIT!!!

    • Dan Riley

      Nov 5, 2014 at 5:49 pm

      BTW: I went from a 26 to a 15 (I’m almost 70 and have been playing for 8 years)but at least I know that it’s not the arrows

      • Dick

        Nov 5, 2014 at 8:58 pm

        I’m sure his place was very busy. Did he block out 6 hours of his schedule for you? There is a reason why he had 6 hours to waste

  19. JS

    Nov 5, 2014 at 5:32 pm

    This is just too much info. I did fittings for about four years and probably 80 % of them were for guys that can’t get the ball in the air. I had more than one player break a club by hitting the back of a lie board. It won’t matter what you fit them into. They will still be bad golfers. You can for sure help them, but a fitting can only do so much. This article makes it look like someone will go straight to the tour if they get fit. It doesnt work that way. Just get a stock iron set with regular flex shafts and bend their lie angles up to compensate for their over the top swing. Fitting done.

    • Tom WIshon

      Nov 5, 2014 at 5:45 pm

      With all due respect with the utmost compassion but you are wrong. Tens and tens of thousands of 85-100 shooters who have taken the leap of faith to work with a good, experienced clubfitter who definitely takes the time in this type of approach have walked away with definite improvement through a reduction of the frequency and the severity of their poor shots from their less than stellar swings. And a definite side effect of this that we have been tracking for 7 yrs from our close association with the British PGA’s education department also shows when the avg golfer has clubs better fit for length, loft, lie, total weight, swingweight and grip size – when they take lessons they improve more quickly because the clubs are now not preventing them from making the swing changes the teaching pro is prescribing.

      With avg players today who are not that athletically inclined, several of the std club specs in off the rack clubs most certainly do make it more difficult for them to learn better swing characteristics.

    • Dick

      Nov 5, 2014 at 8:54 pm

      He is 100% correct, Tom is dead wrong. Go get fit for 3 hours and enjoy your Wishon clubs

    • DatSliceDoe

      Nov 5, 2014 at 11:00 pm

      I’d have to agree in some respects, if you are a literal hacker, as in you actually HACK at the ball, you can’t be fit. Period. I’ve had to tell people to get a lesson from a friend, a pro, a video…before they can really invest in a set of clubs. You need some semblance of a consistent swing to be properly fit, but because the marketing has driven everyone to go get a fitting, people end up with clubs that are no better than an off the rack set because their consistency level is so low.

      I do recommend getting fit for grip size, length and shaft at the bare minimum if you are a beginner, but anything beyond that probably won’t help. You need SOME game to get fit well, and a lot of game to really see a benefit. Just my opinion.

  20. snowman

    Nov 5, 2014 at 1:52 pm

    Great Stuff as always, Tom. Good Template for what to look for as a consumer. I previously had a bad experience with a top-tier, expensive, national club fitting company. In short, although I suppose their recommendations were valid based upon my trackman numbers, I feel that they recommended only premium priced equipment, shaft upgrades, etc. as a way to get deeper into my pockets. I find the lack of consistency/quality control within the fitting ‘industry’ to be very daunting/dismaying.

  21. Joel

    Nov 5, 2014 at 12:35 pm

    Tom it really is a shame that you don’t do fittings except for on special occasions anymore.

  22. Don

    Nov 5, 2014 at 11:18 am

    This is a great article. It gives me an idea of what to ask for when dealing with a fitter. I am planning on changing from my ping i15’s next year. This information can only help ensure I am getting what will get the most out of me. Thank you.

  23. gio

    Nov 5, 2014 at 11:09 am

    Tom – thanks for posting this. I’m actually going for a full fitting at Club Champion in DC this Friday. I printed out your graphic regarding all the inputs/outputs to have with me during the fitting and see which of those areas the fitter actually takes care of.

    • Carl truit

      Nov 5, 2014 at 2:22 pm

      Club champion is a nice place with lots of glitz and glam, but it is in no way close to what TW just wrote. You will try shafts and heads from the big OEM’s then the fitter will give you a price proposal that is 2x what it would cost to special order the same set from the OEM.

      There is a place and time for Club Champion, but know now that it is nothing like what Tom talks about.

      The real shame is that it is next to impossible to find a fitter who is able (and willing) to use Tom’s methodology. Most that I’ve talked to act like they follow his template, but they really just want to fit you into something from their oem fitting cart.

      • Tom WIshon

        Nov 5, 2014 at 5:47 pm

        If you are talking to fitters who work from an OEM cart, then you are not talking to the clubfitters who can do the best in a good fitting situation. Here’s where you will find the better fitters who do work to follow this template :

        The AGCP (Association of Golf Clubfitting Professionals) –

        The ICG (International Clubmakers’ Guild) –

        The TWGT Clubmaker Locator at –

        • Carl Truitt

          Nov 5, 2014 at 8:56 pm

          Tom…Actually the fitter that I worked with was AGCP certified (level 9 or 10), seemed to be credentialed based on my research, was a TWGT Clubmaker and was recommended in one of the many helpful posts of yours in the Golfwrx forums.

          My point was just to illustrate that even with the knowledge you share about what we should look for, we can only drive the process as far as the fitter is willing to go. Maybe I’m wrong, but I got the impression that this fitter wanted to sell OEM product. I hit 50 balls, got data from a Mizuno Shaft optimizer, it spit out 2 shafts and that was the recommendation. Fitter recommended OEM standard length/loft/Grips/SW and lie per the lie board. Maybe the margins are better, maybe it’s less work or maybe the sale is easier. In any case, I moved on because I’ve played long enough to know what I was looking for and I was not going to find it there. It was a shame because this was too similar to the experience of going to the high volume retailer.

          • Tom WIshon

            Nov 6, 2014 at 11:48 am

            Carl, in a perfect world, I would have a “fitting college” with a 4 to 6 month curriculum that would turn out fitters all marching perfectly in step with their knowledge and procedures. That’s unrealistic because there is very little demand yet for full specs professional fitting, mainly because so few golfers know the technology does exist to do this really well. This isn’t known because none of the companies who particulate in the real fitting side of the business make enough money to fund a major marketing campaign to educate the golfers about this.

            So my job has always been to do the fitting research and then write and teach whoever wants to know this stuff in depth. And those who really get into it do study and learn it, while others take the shortcuts.

            Yes, fitting’s Achilles Heel is the fact that not all who say they can fit can do it with the level of expertise that can definitely ensure a huge percentage of success in game improvement from fitting. But some do and more are getting involved more in depth. So it takes some due diligence from the golfers to not just find the name of who appears on surface to be a decent fitter, but then to ask the fitter for names of people he has fit so you contact them to ask their impressions. No different than if you are hunting for a good accountant, mechanic, lawyer or any person of a specialized trade.

            But the fact does remain that full specs fitting CAN and DOES allow a very high percentage of golfers to walk away with some to a lot of improvement to enjoy the game more. Especially so for the avg players for whom so many of the off the rack club specs do prevent them from playing to the best of their ability.

            I mean really – how is it that all baseball, softball and tennis players routinely get their bats and rackets fit for each of those sports’ key fitting specs but in golf it hasn’t been that way. Any sport where you use a stick to hit a ball can never allow its participants to play to the best of their ability with one size fits all “sticks”. Golfers are all different in their size, strength, athletic ability and swing characteristics just like ball players and tennis players.

            PROPER fitting does work in golf. It’s just that it is so little known but it is becoming more known, one golfer at a time. And for those who have found a good fitter, they know it works.

      • Dick

        Nov 5, 2014 at 8:56 pm

        What options do they have? They are simply doing their best with the products given. i don’t see any PING or Titleist fitters doing this ever. I’m talking staffed Reps not big box goons

        • Tom WIshon

          Nov 6, 2014 at 4:51 pm

          Not as many for sure as will the independent custom clubfitter because the OEM heads are all mfgd to be built to the company’s one series of standard specs so they can chiefly be shipped to retailers to be sold off the rack. Places like Hot Stix, Cool Clubs, Club Champion do a very good job expanding these standard head options into a wider range of fitting options for golfers, but they still can’t hit all the fitting options that all the different golfers, especially average golfers, will need to be fully correctly fit.

          To do this right, really right, for ALL golfers, you need to be able to offer lofts from 8 to 16, face angles from 2 open to 4 closed, lies from 2 up to 4 flat and have them all able to be INDEPENDENT of each other on the same driver head. Then you have to have the headweight and a weight addition capability set up so you could hit swingweights from C0 to D6 with shafts that weigh from 50 to 90g and at lengths from 42 to 45. That’s tough with any OEM head because it has been designed to be built to one series of std specs.

          OEM fitting that offers different lengths rarely ever can get the swingweight at whatever level it needs to be for the different length options.

          And with the adj hosel drivers that they all offer, you only get the loft stated when the golfer ALWAYS holds the face square. That eliminates an open or closed face angle for hook/slice reduction which is something at least 70-80% of all golfers need in a driver fitting. And you cannot get loft, lie and face angle all independent of each other in any adj hosel driver.

          For GOOD players, OEM fitting can be fine because their available specs tend to range within what a good player needs. Very tough for avg players though who need a lot more specs different than what are std on the OEM clubs.

      • Blaik

        Nov 6, 2014 at 12:17 pm

        The fitting experience at Club Champion was very thorough I thought. I will say I was hesitant to spend that kind of coin at Club Champion too but the guy took me back into their build room and showed me how they built the clubs. Each shaft was flex sorted and each head was weighed. I made them check the swingweights when I picked them up and they were all within half a swing weight of what was noted. My buddy has a frequency meter and when I checked them they were all about spot on. I guess it just depends on how much you value consistent materials and a quality build. For the most part I’m happy with them too, just wish I would have waited a little longer because there are a few other heads that are coming out I think I might like more than what I got. If you truly want custom clubs it’s gonna cost more than stock.

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Beyond limits: Carbon bending and the future of shaft manufacturing



My name is James, and I am an equipment junkie. Like many of you, I am also a (mediocre) golfer struggling to take my golf game to the next level. But since I’m not so keen on hitting the range or the gym, I’m always searching for the next big breakthrough to help me avoid excessive practice and golf lessons.

TLDR: I am back to report that I may have found the ultimate breakthrough involving how golf shafts are manufactured. It will sound mind-boggling and counter-intuitive, but the new technology involves controlling a shaft’s variables of weight, flex (CPM), and torsional strength (torque) all independently of one another. As if this alone doesn’t sound far-fetched enough, it also purports to control the subjective aspect of how stiff the shaft feels without affecting the other variables.

To the best of my knowledge, I never knew any of these were possible, but seeing (and feeling) is believing, though I’m still reeling from my recent experience. Moreover, I dare predict that the sheer novelty of this discovery has the potential to redefine the golf shaft industry as we know it.

Also, the article is long. You’ve been warned.

In A League Of Their Own

Over the years, I have reported on several golf innovations and technologies that made golfers sit up and take notice. Of those finds, let me briefly recap two products that especially stood out before I unveil my most recent discovery further below.

Starting at number three, I present the now-famous Autoflex shaft by Dumina. Introduced in early 2020 during the COVID epidemic, the small Korean company claimed that their shafts didn’t use any flex designations and are to be selected solely based on a golfer’s swing speed. Against conventional wisdom, the company claimed that a super flexible, ultralight shaft can improve distance and accuracy for golfers of all swing speeds. The AF shaft, with its mysterious Korea Hidden Technology (KHT), sounded too good to be true, but more often than not, golfers who braved the steep price and the hot pink color agreed that the shaft seemed legitimate. Many also credit it with creating a whole new category of soft and hyper-flexible performance shafts.

Next in the number two spot is the groundbreaking FreeFlex shaft from SJ Golf Lab, also out of Korea. When the FF shafts surfaced in early 2023, I first thought they were a slightly improved version of the Autoflex. At weights and flex even softer than the AF, the shafts also improved distance and accuracy at a lower price point than their counterparts.

Upon delving further, FreeFlex Technology (FFT) was far more amazing than I could have ever imagined. Against the norm, the inventor of FFT claimed that a shaft’s weight, flex (CPM), and torque are NOT relative to each other and that each variable can be controlled separately. According to SJ Lab, a lightweight, flexible shaft with a strong torque was possible, and vice-versa. The incredulous claim went largely unnoticed at the time, but the folks at SJ Lab recently decided to prove their technology by introducing the ultimate unicorn of a shaft.

Aptly named ‘Hammer Throw’ the rubber-like shaft featured a conventional shaft’s weight of 62g yet measured only 140 CPM to be incredibly soft and flexible. To top it off, it also featured a strong 3.5 torque similar to an S-flex shaft, all unlikely numbers that have never been combined in a single shaft before. The Hammer Throw proved to be a wonder shaft for slower swingers, helping to increase club head speed, distance, and even accuracy.

Ultimately, SJ Lab redefined the concept of ‘shaft customization’ by proving that a shaft’s WT, CPM, and TQ can be controlled independently to any degree.

Featuring SJ Golf’s FFT technology, the Hammer Throw and FF38 also caught the attention of many WLD athletes with swing speeds over 150mph.

Mind-Bending Revelation

The AF and FF shafts are indeed quite amazing, but what I’m about to share with you may be an even bigger discovery than both of them combined.

It was a Thursday afternoon in October when I arrived at SJ Golf Lab. I had just finished a round of golf that morning and felt flush after having bested my buddies on a tough track. I was to cover the story of a new line of putter shafts (based on the Chaos Theory in physics, no less) and was looking forward to seeing if it could help my putting.

I was making small talk with Dr. Choi, the inventor & CEO of SJ Golf Lab, when a courier arrived to hand him a sealed envelope. Inside was a patent certificate for a new golf shaft manufacturing process, which was to be featured in SJ Lab’s latest MetaFlex series of shafts.

“Oh, that sounds interesting” I said politely. “Is it like FreeFlex technology?”

What came next was a barrage of information so contradictory and yet so transformative in its revelation that I forgot all about the putter shafts.

Entering The Realm Of The Senses

Carbon Bending Technology (CBT) is the latest brainchild of Dr. Choi, the inventor of FreeFlex shafts. As incredulous as his FFT may seem, his new CBT technology takes it even further by stating that a fourth variable, the shaft’s level of firmness, can also be controlled independently of the other variables.

“CBT technology involves bending or wrapping carbon in a certain way to control how stiff a shaft feels, independently of weight, flex, and torque.” – Dr. Seung-jin Choi, inventor of CBT Technology 

Take a moment to let that sink in. Not only is he saying that the objective values of WT, CPM, and TQ can be controlled in any manner desired, but he can also control the subjective aspect of how firm a
shaft feels.

If CBT technology is legitimately possible, the implications of his discovery are immense and may well change the way golf shafts are made. Needless to say, such a spectacular assertion begs the question, “How can such an improbable idea be possible?”

As I struggled to comprehend what I just heard, Dr. Choi handed me a shaft and asked me to try and bend it. Grabbing it at both ends, the shaft felt light and soft, and I was able to bend and flex it easily. I was then given another shaft and asked to do the same. The new shaft felt much firmer from the get-go, similar to what I’d expect from a typical S-flex shaft. When I said that the second shaft felt much stronger than the first, I was in for a rude awakening.

“They’re the same shafts” Dr. Choi said. “The only difference is that the second one was treated with the CBT process. Other than that, both are practically the same in CPM and torque.”

“What do you mean these are the same shafts? This one is definitely stiffer.” My eyebrow arched in puzzlement at such a blatant contradiction.

After all, I was holding both shafts in my hands, and no one in the world was going to convince me that these two had the same CPM and TQ measurements.

The skepticism in my voice must’ve been obvious as I was led to a measuring device. I wish I could’ve seen the look on my face at that exact moment when my eyes confirmed both shafts to have the same CPM and torque.

Two same-looking shafts measured similarly in CPM and torque, despite one feeling much stiffer.

Goosebumps broke out on my arms, and my brain felt numb. Stunned, I took turns grabbing each shaft by the ends and bent them over and over again. There was absolutely no doubt that one was stiffer than the other. It wasn’t even close. Yet, if the numbers don’t lie, how was I to reconcile the two empirical facts at odds with each other before my very eyes?

Seeing Is Believing… Or Is It?

After repeated measurements to ensure I wasn’t dyslexic, I regained enough sense to sit down with Dr. Choi to hear more about the sorcery of carbon bending.

ME: How does CBT differ from your earlier FFT technology?

CHOI: CBT came as a result of golfers loving our FreeFlex shafts with the FFT technology but wanting even more. The FFT allows us to control the weight, flex, and torque independently. We used this discovery to design a new breed of shafts that help all levels of golfers increase club head speed and distance. But some of the stronger, faster-speed golfers were eventually turned off from it, as they couldn’t get accustomed to the soft feel and flex. The fear of spraying the ball all over the course was just too much.

To solve this issue, I looked at many factors that led golfers to describe whether a shaft is soft or stiff. Similar to FFT, I soon discovered that a shaft’s stiffness is not relative to its CPM value. By reinforcing a shaft through a special process I call carbon-bending, it can be made to feel as stiff as I wish without changing the original CPM or torque.

ME: (blank stare)

CHOI: Did that answer the question?

ME: Uhh… no? What do you mean the CPM doesn’t change? If the shaft became stiffer, it means the CPM value must have increased, doesn’t it? How we perceive stiffness is subjective, so we measure the CPM value objectively with a machine. That way, we can compare the CPM values of different shafts to see which one is stiffer with the higher number.

CHOI: Normally yes, but like I said, how stiff the shaft feels does not have to correlate with the CPM. They are independently controllable. As I just showed you with the two shafts earlier, both measured at the same CPM and torque. It was only when I applied the CBT method to one of them that it became stiffer than before, as you have seen for yourself.

ME: Yeah, I’m still not sure how that is, feeling firm in my hands but the machine reading it as soft. Is this like the cat in Schrodinger’s box, where the cat is both alive and dead at the same time? This shaft is also both soft and firm simultaneously?

CHOI: Not quite. But how about this? What if the CPM measurement we currently use to gauge and compare stiffness between shafts is not the only method? What if there were other ways that we haven’t considered to control the feeling of firmness?

ME: So you’re saying you discovered a new way to objectively measure how we feel or perceive stiffness?

CHOI: I think it’s better to say that I realized that a shaft’s CPM and stiffness can be independent of each other, whereas before, we thought they were directly relative. It led to look for other ways to make the shaft firmer, which is what I did. In the process, it also made me think, what else are we missing? Maybe we’ve been limiting ourselves in believing there’s nothing new left to discover.

Shaft Manufacturing 101

According to Dr. Choi, the method of manufacturing carbon shafts has remained largely unchanged since 1979, when Taylormade first introduced the first graphite shaft that offered many advantages over conventional steel shafts. Since then, various new materials and technologies have made the shafts lighter and stronger, but the basic shaft-making process remains the same.

The making of a modern golf shaft consists of wrapping layers of prepreg (treated carbon fiber) sheets around a steel shaft (mandrel). As more layers are applied, the shaft becomes progressively thicker and heavier (WT), which makes the flex (CPM) stiffer and increases the torsional (TQ)

The characteristics of a shaft depend on the amount of material and how each layer is oriented on the mandrel. How this is done varies among OEMs.

The current method and its proportional relationship between WT, CPM, and TQ is widely accepted. However, it also presents a big challenge for shaft-makers, whose main goal is to make shafts that improve distance with more accuracy. This is because generating more club speed for more distance necessitates a light and flexible shaft; while improving shot accuracy requires the shaft to be firm in both flex and torsional strength.

To balance the trade-off as best they could, OEMs have continually researched new materials and higher-quality carbon, along with their own, often secret, ways of weaving and arranging the carbon prepreg. A good example to illustrate shaft improvement in this manner is the lighter 50-gram range of X-flex shafts, which were a rarity only a few years ago.

At least for now, 5X shafts seem to be the pinnacle of conventional shafts that can be made with the existing process.

Shaft Manufacturing 2.0

In physics, Force equals Mass multiplied by Acceleration (F=MA). The same can be applied to golf at impact, but since a golf club is designed to be in motion, its dynamic energy is calculated as Impulse=MAT, where T is the time the ball stays in contact with the club face.

Dr. Choi explained that increasing any of the three factors would transfer more energy to the ball (I).

In other words, by making the club head heavier (M), faster (A), and getting the ball to remain in contact with the clubface longer (T), the distance will increase as a result.

Now that we can get faster club head speed (FF shafts), how can the shaft be made to feel stiff while retaining a longer distance? The solution was surprisingly simple, as most discoveries tend to be at first.

“Imagine wearing a pair of skin-tight nylon stockings,” Dr. Choi said. “It’s tight, but you can still move and bend your knees easily.” Truth be told, I’d never worn stockings before, but I nodded to see where it would lead.

“If you were to put on one more, your legs will feel stiff, and with yet another, it’ll now be very difficult to even bend your knees,” he was building up towards a big reveal. “But no matter how stiff your legs now feel with the layers of stockings, you can still rotate them.” Come again?

“When you try to sit down, the legs will stick straight out like they’re in a cast, right? But you’d still be able to twist or rotate your leg [left and right] because the stockings are not exerting force in that direction.”

Dazed at the anticlimactic turn, I tried to recall the last time I had a cast but he plowed on. “The original characteristics of your legs don’t change because of the stockings. They’re still your legs, which are bendy and flexible.”

I may have missed a whole lot there, but loosely translated, CBT technology is like adding tight pairs of stockings to make a shaft feel firmer, but won’t change what the original shaft was in terms of
torque or CPM.

Helical Carbon Armour

Carbon bending involves a new step in the shaft manufacturing process, where a thin strip of carbon is helically wrapped tightly around the shaft to increase stiffness. This new sheath of armor will firm up the feel of the shaft but will not affect the CPM or torque. In addition, Dr. Choi’s in-depth research further showed that the width of the strip band and the spacing between the helical spirals all played a part in changing the characteristics of the shaft in minute ways.

Each shaft has been treated with CBT and using different carbon weave, band width, materials and alignment to display a unique characteristics that can be tailored to a golfer’s swing

The truly mind-blowing prospect of CBT, however, is its ability to create an endless number of unique shafts with specific performance characteristics. For example, the number of new shaft possibilities can reach tens or even hundreds of thousands, depending on various factors, including but not limited to the width and thickness of the band, the spacing and orientation of the helical spiral, the weave pattern of the band fabric, and each of the different materials that all of these factors can be applied to.

“Can you imagine a PGA tour pro being able to dial in a golf shaft to squeeze 99.9% of the performance potential from their favorite shaft, without giving up anything they prefer in WT, CPM, TQ, and now FEEL?” – SJ Golf Lab 2023 

If It Looks And Barks Like A Dog?

Several days later, I returned to SJ Lab to test the new MetaFlex CBT shafts. The lineup consisted of three driver shafts of 5H, 6H, 6.5M, and iron ix90 shafts (H for high kick, M for mid-kick). Again, the MF series is designed for faster-speed golfers who swing at least 100mph to well over 120mph. I purposely asked not to see the shaft specs beforehand, as I wanted to remain neutral in determining how the new shafts felt and performed.

Waggling the 5H shaft first, it felt similar in weight and flex to a typical R-shaft. I usually average a smooth swing of about 95 mph with my FF38, but the 5H shaft instinctively made me try to swing harder to compensate for the firmer feel. The good drives launched high and carried as far, with spin between 1900~2000 rpm. As I warmed up, I was hitting it quite well, despite swinging a bit harder than usual.

I had grown accustomed to swinging smoothly and in tempo with FF shafts, so it felt good to swing hard again and not worry about the head catching up. The overall distance was comparable with my own driver at 240~250 yards, so I guessed the 5H specs to be about 220 CPM and close to 4.0 torque. On the downswing, the shaft reminded me of the many 5S shafts I had been using before being turned onto softer shafts. I imagined I could play it well, but struggle to keep it straight on the back nine when I gradually get tired.

Next, the 6H shaft felt like a conventional 5S on the waggle, but much stiffer like a 5X shaft on the actual downswing. I guessed it to be about 230~240 CPM and 3.5 in torque, as I was only able to turn the club head over about one-third of the time. I got a couple out to 240 yards but the rest of the shots varied from a fade bordering on a slice interspersed with low pulls. I felt the shaft demanded more speed for it to show its potential, and my slower speed wasn’t making it sing as it should.

Lastly, the MetaFlex 6.5M told me right away that it was out of my league. The waggle reminded me of a Ventus or a Tensei shaft, and the actual swing was even stiffer and closer to a 6X shaft. As expected, my shots were mostly pushed dead right, as I couldn’t effectively load the shaft with speed.

When I tried to force the head to turn over, I’d overcompensate to flip the wrist and pull it low left. The few that managed to land on the fairway barely traveled 210 yards with a noticeable decrease in ball speed. I can usually muster enough muscle to make a typical stiff shaft work over nine holes at least, but the 6.5M felt like an iron rod.

Overall, MF shafts’ waggles felt similar to conventional aftermarket shafts and felt even firmer during the actual swing.

I was now ready to see the actual spec measurements of the three shafts.

I could never have imagined such numbers corresponding to the firmness I experienced with MetaFlex shafts.

“There’s no way these numbers are the actual specs,” I protested. “These are softer than my FF38, so how…?” Hearing my voice hit a high pitch, I quickly closed my mouth. I already knew to expect something different, but this? Trying to reconcile the stiffness with such low numbers was just as difficult as it was the first time I encountered this phenomenon.

For lack of a better comparison, imagine picking up a cute kitten to hear it purr, only to be shocked at hearing it bark like a big angry pitbull with its tail stepped on. Does this mean I can no longer use phrases like “seeing is believing,” What will happen to “if it looks like a dog and barks like a dog?”

More importantly, what does this mean for the future of golf shafts?

Implications For The Future

Deep down, I believe every golfer wants to increase their driver distance. It doesn’t matter if you average 150 yards or 300 yards. As golfers, the need to hit it farther is in our DNA.

Since discovering that longer, easier distance (and accuracy to boot) is possible with the advent of AF shafts, I’ve never looked back. When FreeFlex shafts debuted earlier this year, I switched all my shafts throughout the bag and couldn’t be happier. I’ve received dozens of similar emails from golfers who read about my experiences and took the plunge, mostly to their pleasant surprise.

As amazing as the shafts are, some scoffed at the absence of such shafts on professional tours. If they’re so good, why aren’t they used more? After all, a distance gain of 10 yards on drives can mean as much as 5-10 percent closer to the pin on approach shots for shorter putts, which can translate to millions of dollars in winnings. In fact, dozens of pros from all major tours have tried them, some openly and some in secret.

As a recreational golfer, I can live with an occasional OB if it means consistently out-driving my friends. But an elite tour pro for whom a single stroke may be worth millions? Not a chance. Even the best can become a psychological wreck if the shaft flexed more than Arnold Schwarzenegger in his prime. Especially on the back nine of a major on Sunday afternoon.

But for the sake of argument, let’s suppose there exists a shaft that truly offers longer distance and accuracy of the soft FF shaft with the reassuring feel and playability of a stiff shaft. Better yet, what if your favorite shaft can be readjusted to fit all of your needs for maximum performance output and feel preferences? I’d bet my last Pro V1s that elite professional golfers will stop at nothing to have them tested and optimized to benefit each of their own swing metrics and performance. It’s in their DNA.

Dr. Choi also mentioned that he is nearing completion of his state-of-the-art swing and shaft diagnostic system, which can prescribe precisely the type of shaft (weight, flex, torque, feel, kick, kitchen sink?) needed for a player. And he builds it to that specification. Customization to the fullest.

As the company’s name implies, that is the ultimate goal of SJ Golf Lab and Dr. Choi, who hopes his shafts will come as a “Special Joy” for each and every golfer.

All in all, CBT certainly felt to me like the next evolutionary step in golf shaft technology.

So, what do you think? Can we trust the accuracy of the statements made by SJ Golf Lab? I would love to hear from other golfers and knowledgeable shaftoids in the industry, and what it can mean going forward.

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Opinion & Analysis

The Wedge Guy: The science of spin



Over my 30-plus years writing about equipment and designing wedges, I must have been asked thousands of times: “How do I get more spin with my wedge shots?” That seems like such a simple question, but the answer is as far from simple as you can get. So, today I’m going to try to break down the science of spin into its separate components.

The amount of spin imparted to the golf ball in any wedge shot will be affected by three basic things:

  1. The ball you play
  2. Your personal swing skills
  3. The specific wedges you play.

Let’s look at each of them.

The Ball

One very simple way to improve the spin you get with your wedge shots is to play a premium ball with a soft cover. The harder and usually less expensive balls typically have a firmer core and a cover that is more durable but doesn’t allow as much spin. You should experiment with various balls to see which gives you the optimum combination of distance and spin.

Your skills

We all know those golfers who seem to spin the ball better than others. That’s because they have honed their skills to make an accelerating, pure strike to the ball most of the time, and to make contact very low on the clubhead – elite players wear out a dime-sized spot on their wedges that is center-face and between the 2nd and 5th grooves. My bet is your wear pattern is more the size of a quarter or even half dollar and centered several grooves higher. You’ll see later why that is so important.

Anyone can learn to be a better wedge player by engaging a golf professional and spending lots more time practicing your wedge shots. I highly recommend both, but also realize that spin is greatly affected by swing speed as well. A strong player who can hit a gap wedge 120 yards is likely to generate much more spin than an equally skilled player who hits gap wedge only 90 yards.

Now we get to the fun part – how the specific wedges you are playing will affect the amount of spin you can impart to any given shot.

The wedges


Very simply, if you are playing a wedge that you’ve had for years, the grooves are likely well past worn out and are costing you valuable RPMs on every wedge shot. That said, no wedge brand has any measurable competitive advantage over another when it comes to groove technology. The USGA has not changed the rules on grooves in over a decade, and every premium brand of wedges is utilizing the best CNC-milling techniques to push those regulations to the limit. There’s just no story here. And my robotic testing indicates the total absence of grooves only reduces spin by 15-17 percent on a dry ball.

The Shaft

Yes, wedge shafts are that important. You should have shafts in your wedges that closely match the shafts in your irons in weight, material, and flex. This is particularly important if you have evolved to lighter and softer iron shafts. The exception to that is if you play X-flex shafts in your irons, take a tip from almost all tour professionals and opt for a slightly softer flex in your wedges.

Clubhead Design

What is much more important to make a wedge “spin-ier” is the design of the clubhead itself. While wedges really didn’t change much for decades, over the past few years, every major wedge brand has begun to position a bit more mass in the top section of the wedge clubhead. This repositioning of mass raises the CG a bit and improves the “gear effect,” which enhances spin on every wedge shot.

While they all are doing so to a different degree, most are held back by their reliance on their tour professionals’ input. Those elite players already spin the ball as much as necessary, and they don’t need or want more spin in their wedge shots. But that isn’t in your best interest.

This subject simply cannot be addressed without referencing my own work in wedge design for over thirty years. My wedges for Reid Lockhart, EIDOLON, SCOR, Ben Hogan and now Edison Golf have put increasingly more mass in the top half of the clubhead to help recreational golfers get more spin on all their wedge shots. I’m flattered that all major brands are finally starting to follow my pioneering of this design concept, because it works.  (Caliper measurement reveals that none of today’s wedges even have as much mass above center-face as my original Reid Lockhart wedges did in the mid-1990s)

Regarding my reference to tour players’ skills and their dime-sized wear pattern earlier, by striking their wedge shots so low in the face, they are optimizing spin on their traditional “tour design” wedges, because it maximizes the amount of clubhead mass above the point of impact. We all know that “thinned” wedge shot that flies low but has sizzling spin – same concept.

To help explain how this CG placement affects spin, look at what has happened in drivers, fairways, hybrids, and now irons.

As the “launch monitor wars” have come to dominate club-fitting (and selling!), the “holy grail” of distance is high launch and low spin. The engineers are achieving this by continuously finding ways to put maximum mass low in the clubhead with carbon crowns, tungsten inserts and thin faces. But good wedge play is all about penetrating trajectories and optimum spin — and all that mass in the bottom of the wedge head is exactly the opposite of what is needed to deliver that ball flight.

Final thoughts

I’ll also leave you with this thought on getting maximum spin on your intermediate-range wedge shots.  You are quite likely to discover you actually get more spin with your 52- to 54-degree wedge than with your higher-lofted 56 to 60. That’s because the ball is less likely to slide up the clubface, which causes loss of spin and higher ball flight. Give it a try to see for yourself.

This has been one of my longer posts, but the topic is worthy of a full explanation. I hope the “science of spin” is much less mysterious now.

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19th Hole

Vincenzi’s RSM Classic betting preview: Experienced heads likely to contend at Sea Island



The final full-field event of the 2023 fall season has arrived. The PGA TOUR heads just south of Augusta for the RSM Classic at Sea Island Golf Club (Seaside and Plantation courses) in St. Simons Island, Georgia.

Each golfer will play three rounds on the Seaside course and one round on the Plantation course.

The Seaside course is a par-70 layout measuring 7,005 yards, and the Plantation course is a par-72 setup coming in at 7,062 yards. The Seaside course, which was redesigned by Tom Fazio, plays more like a coastal links, while the Plantation course is similar to a tree-lined parkland course. Both feature Bermudagrass greens and will be very scorable. The past five winners of the event have all finished between -19 and -22.

Some notable players in the field include Brian Harman, Ludvig Aberg, Si Woo Kim, Akshay Bhatia, Cameron Young, Billy Horschel, Matt Kuchar, Russell Henley, Taylor Pendrith and Corey Conners.

Past Winners at The RSM Classic

  • 2022: Adam Svensson (-19)
  • 2021: Talor Gooch (-22)
  • 2020: Robert Streb (-19)
  • 2019: Tyler Duncan (-19)
  • 2018: Charles Howell III (-19)
  • 2017: Austin Cook (-21)
  • 2016: Mackenzie Hughes (-17)
  • 2015: Kevin Kisner (-22)

Let’s take a look at several metrics for Sea Island Golf Club to determine which golfers boast top marks in each category over their last 24 rounds:

Strokes Gained: Approach

The greens at Seaside are big, so it will be important to stick approach shots close to avoid having to make difficult two-putt par saves. In what should be a birdie-fest, golfers will need to stick their approach shots to contend.

Total Strokes Gained: Approach in past 24 rounds:

  1. Sam Ryder (+24.8)
  2. Russell Knox (+22.4)
  3. J.T. Poston (+20.3)
  4. Eric Cole (+18.8)
  5. Alex Smalley (+18.4)

Good Drives Gained

Length really isn’t a factor at either course. Looking at the past winners at Sea Island, they’re all accurate golfers off of the tee who know how to find the fairway. However, over the past few years, “Good Drives Gained” has been a much more predictive statistic at this event than “Fairways Gained.”

Total Good Drives Gained in past 24 rounds:

  1. Russell Henley (+22.7)
  2. Brendon Todd (+21.8)
  3. Tyler Duncan (+21.7)
  4. Martin Laird (+20.6)
  5. J.J. Spaun (+20.5)

Strokes Gained Putting: Bermudagrass

This tournament could become a putting contest if the winds aren’t strong this week. Historically, the winners of the RSM Classic are great Bermudagrass putters (Simpson, Kisner and Hughes).

Total Strokes Gained: Putting on Bermuda in past 24 rounds:

  1. Maverick McNealy (+27.7)
  2. Chad Ramey (+25.3)
  3. Martin Trainer (+23.0)
  4. Justin Suh (+22.7)
  5. Taylor Montgomery (+22.5)

Birdie or Better Gained

With birdies (and potentially some eagles) likely to come in abundance, pars aren’t going to cut it at Sea Island. I anticipate the winning score to be close to -20, so targeting golfers who go low is the right strategy here.

Total strokes gained in Birdie or Better Gained in past 24 rounds

  1. Eric Cole (+31.4) 
  2. J.T. Poston (+21.3)
  3. Ludvig Aberg (+20.9)
  4. Luke List (+20.7)
  5. Justin Suh (+16.1)

Strokes Gained: Par 4 (400-450)

With eight of the par 4s on the Seaside course measuring 400-450 yards, I’m looking to target golfers who excel on par 4s of this length.

Total strokes gained in category in past 24 rounds:

  1. Russell Henley (+21.1)
  2. Denny McCarthy (+13.4) 
  3. Matthias Schmid (+12.8)
  4. Callum Tarren (+12.6) 
  5. Ryan Moore (+11.4)

Statistical Model

Below, I’ve reported overall model rankings using a combination of the five key statistical categories previously discussed.

These rankings are comprised of SG: App (25%); Good Drives Gained (21); SG: Putting Bermudagrass (21%); B.O.B (21%); and SG: Par 4 400-450 (12%)

  1. Russell Henley (+2200)
  2. Sam Ryder (+9000)
  3. Chesson Hadley (+6500)
  4. Brendon Todd (+5000)
  5. Eric Cole (+3500)
  6. J.T. Poston (+3500)
  7. Stephan Jaeger (+4000)
  8. Matthias Schmid (+6000)
  9. Brian Harman (+2000)
  10. Austin Smotherman (+25000)

2023 RSM Classic Picks

Matt Kuchar +4000 (DraftKings)

There are plenty of players at the top of the odds board who have a strong chance to contend this week, but few have had the recent repetitions that Matt Kuchar has had. The veteran is in fantastic form and felt as if his game was in great shape heading into the World Wide Technologies Championship, where he came agonizingly close to victory.

Kuchar has three top-19 finishes in his last four starts worldwide, including the runner-up in his most recent start. At one point, he had a six-shot lead before making a disastrous quadruple bogey on the 15th hole during his third round. Many expected Kuchar to struggle on Sunday after blowing such a big lead, but he performed admirably and would have won if Erik Van Rooyen didn’t shoot a ridiculous -8 on the back nine.

The 45-year-old currently lives in St. Simons, Georgia so will be right at home playing at Sea Island this week. His history at the course isn’t as spectacular as one would think given how well the course fits him on paper, but he does have four top-30 finishes at the event since 2013.

In five of Kuchar’s six wins since 2012, he’s had a top-5 finish in one of his three previous starts leading up to the win. I believe his start at the WWT was a foreshadowing of a looming victory.

Billy Horschel +4000 (DraftKings)

After struggling for much of the 2022-2023 season, Billy Horschel has finished the top 20 in five of his past six worldwide starts including a T14 finish in his most recent start at the Alfred Dunhill Links Championship in October.

Horschel hasn’t played the RSM Classic with regularity but finished in 2nd place at the event back in 2016 where he lost to Mackenzie Hughes in a playoff. The course is a perfect fit for Billy, who’s not overly long off the tee and putts incredibly well on Bermudagrass.

Billy will come into the event as motivated as ever to contend on a course that he should be able to pick apart. With seven career PGA Tour wins, there’s no doubt that Horschel is a closer who will be able to keep his composure down the stretch.

Harris English +6000 (DraftKings)

After a 2021 Ryder Cup appearance, Harris English has had an inconsistent two seasons on the PGA Tour. However, the Sea Island resident finished the season on an encouraging note, finishing 10th at the BMW Championship.

English has a mixed history at Sea Island, but he does have a 6th place finish in 2020. He finished 29th last year, but a final round 65 may be an indication that the 34-year-old figured something out at the course that he grew just a few hours away from.

It’s a bit concerning that English has been off since August, but he’s played well off of layoffs in the past. Last year, he finished 9th at the Fortinet off a 6-week break. In 2021, he won the Sentry Tournament of Champions off of a 5-week break. This break has been a bit longer, but the extra time may not be a major detriment.

Enlgish is a better player than he’s shown over the past 18 months, and I believe he’s in store for a resurgent season that may start this week in Sea Island.

Taylor Pendrith +6500 (DraftKings)

Taylor Pendrith is in fantastic form. In his past three starts, he’s finished 3rd, 15th and 8th. Despite not seeming like a great course fit at Sea Island on paper, he’s had some great history at the course throughout his career.

Last year, Pendrith finished 15th at the event, gaining 5.4 strokes on approach. He also came into the event while playing some below average golf and still managed to hit it great at Sea Island. In 2021, he finished 26th despite missing the cut in two previous starts as well as the following start. I believe now that the Canadian is coming into the event playing some incredibly consistent golf he should be a serious threat to contend deep into the weekend.

Ben Griffin +7500 (DraftKings)

Just a week ago, Ben Griffin was 22-1 and one of the betting favorites at the Butterfield Bermuda Championship. Although some top end players such as Ludvig Aberg, Brian Harman and Cameron Young have been added to this field, I still believe the drop all the way down to this price gives Griffin a ton of value this week.

The North Carolina hasn’t built up an extensive course history at Sea Island just yet, but he did finish 29th at the event last season. The 27-year-old fired an opening round 65 to start his week and then shot two more rounds in the 60’s after a second round 71. His experience last season should be helpful in his pursuit of a victory this time around.

Sea Island should suit Griffin perfectly. In his past 24 rounds, he ranks 15th in the field in both Strokes Gained: Approach and in Strokes Gained: Putting on Bermudagrass. His sharp iron play and ability to hole putts on Bermuda make him an ideal candidate for to contend at Sea Island.

Alex Smalley +8000 (DraftKings):

The past five events in the PGA Tour’s swing season have given us winners who’ve already won on Tour multiple times. The fa oll is typically a time for first-time Tour winners to shine, and among the top candidates to accomplish that this week is Alex Smalley.

Smalley has contended a few times thus far in his career and one of those times was at last year’s RSM Classic. A consistent effort of 67-66-67-67 resulted in the Greensboro, North Carolina resident finishing in a tie for 5th place for the week. It’s no surprise that Smalley likes Sea Island given the amount of golf he’s played in the area and his knack for playing well on shorter courses.

The Duke graduate is beginning to round into form, finishing 30th last week at the Butterfield Bermuda Championship fueled by a final round 65 (-6). Smalley has done his best work on easier courses and the course should provide plenty of birdie opportunities for the 25-year-old.

Kevin Kisner +25000 (DraftKings):

Kevin Kisner has been playing incredibly poorly by his standards since his win at the Wyndham Championship in August of 2021, however Camilo Villegas’ win last week showed us how quickly things can change.

Kisner has shown some minimal signs of improvement during the fall season, finishing 62nd and 51st in his two starts at the Fortinet Championship and the Sanderson Farms Championship. More importantly, Kisner gained 1.8 strokes on approach at the Country Club of Jackson, which was his best approach performance since November of 2022. Going back to the Villegas example, while he was in the midst of a twelve-start stretch where he didn’t finish better than 54th, the Colombian gained 4.0 strokes on approach in a missed cut at the Sanderson Farms Championship in a missed cut. Clearly, he found something and went on to finish 2nd and 1st in his next two starts.

If there’s a course that Kisner may be able to find “it” on, it’s Sea Island. Kisner is a former Georgia Bulldog who’s won here in 2015, lost in a playoff in 2020 and has two additional top-7 finishes since his win. At long odds, “Kiz” is worth a sprinkle on one of his favorite tracks.

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