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Rotation in the golf swing is about quality, not quantity



This article was co-authored with Chris Gibson, an Australian AAA-rated golf professional. His teaching philosophy focuses on simplicity and longevity in the game, providing help for golfers at all levels. He focuses on interpreting information from technology and applying it in the simplest way possible to help his students.

Rotation is a buzz word that gets used a lot when talking about the golf swing. And it should. Golf is a rotary sport that requires us to turn the body in order to generate power in the action of hitting the ball.

More often than not, rotation is discussed with reference to quantity: How far? How much? How many degrees?

In our opinion, body rotation in the golf swing (like so many things in life) should be discussed in terms of quality, not quantity.

Why is it important to change our attitude toward rotation? Because talking about it in terms of quantity, while claiming that more is better, does not help the majority of golfers.

The average club golfer is often incapable of achieving large ranges of quality rotation in the key areas of their bodies. Because they can’t find the range or stability in the right places, they look for it elsewhere and usually end up in one of two scenarios:

  1. A reverse spine angle/over extension of spine, with a head that moves toward target (Photo 1).
  2. A collapsed lower body (Photo 2).
pic 1

Photo 1

pic 2

Photo 2

It would benefit a huge amount of golfers around the world to get a better understanding of what quality rotation is and where it needs to happen.

Quality rotation is the act of a joint moving through a range of motion in a way that is efficient, controlled and repeatable. Essentially, the correct muscles are exerting the correct forces on the correct bones in order for them twist against one other in the correct way. This allows golfers to get into powerful positions in the backswing, which in turn allows us to rotate in the opposite direction and return the club back to the ball in the most efficient way possible.

3 Key Areas

The three areas that we need to generate quality rotation from are the hips, shoulders and thoracic spine. It’s not mere coincidence that these are three of the most mobile areas in our body and are specifically designed to achieve large ranges of motion.

At the hip, we are looking for efficient internal and external rotation (see Photo 3). That is the pelvis turning around the top of the thigh bone (femur) efficiently, without the all-too-common compensations (see Photo 2).

pic 3

Photo 3

From the thoracic spine, we need the vertebrae to turn, one on top of the other (see Photo 4 of thoracic rotation). This allows the sternum (breastplate) to face away from the target, creating a wind-up effect in the torso without the usual compensations (see Photo 1).

pic 4

Photo 4

Here, we would like the shoulder externally rotate, essentially turning the inside of the elbow outwards (see Photo 5). This allows the club to be set “on plane” without the common shoulder-level compensations (see Photo 6, flattened shoulder plane).

pic 5

Photo 5

pic 6

Photo 6

If golfers can find quality rotation in each key area, then they have a good chance to find a solid backswing position from which they can reverse the movement back to the golf ball.


Different people have varying capabilities to rotate in the three key areas. Sandy Lyle, Jason Day and John Daly have completely different amounts of rotation in their bodies during the golf swing. They are all long hitters who generate huge amounts of power from varying QUANTITIES of QUALITY rotation.

If you have limited range of motion in one or more of the three key areas, don’t despair. Make the most of what you have, and you can still be efficient and powerful in your golf swing.

Learn how to train quality rotation

Technology does a great job of quantifying our body and club movements during the swing. The most popular and accessible form of movement analysis comes in the form of K-Vest. K-Vest essentially tells us the degrees of rotation that we are achieving at the pelvis (hips) and at the thorax (chest), as well as how far our pelvis tilts from front to back. While K-Vest gives recommendations for quantity of rotation, it’s up to the user to interpret the info, match it up to the way the body is moving and look for the quality of rotation.

Here’s an example (Photo 7). Nick is achieving the K-Vest recommended degrees of rotation at the pelvis and at the thorax, which is demonstrated in Photo 8 (green is good). The position looks pretty solid. There’s a nice dynamic rotation in the key areas.

pic 7

Photo 7

pic 8

Photo 8

In Photo 9, Nick is also achieving the K-Vest recommended degree of rotation at the pelvis and thorax, but you’ll notice that the position does not look very efficient. That’s why just looking at the numbers (Photo 10) can be detrimental to a golfer’s swing. We have to focus on the quality of rotation, because simply going after the quantity can be very misleading.

pic 9

Pic 9

pic 10

Pic 10

As golf coaches and golf fitness professionals, we need to learn to recognize what good rotation is and how to assess and measure it. As for golfers, they need to learn what quality rotation looks and feels like, then go about practicing and training it.

Let’s shift our context of rotation from “How much?” to “How well?” so we can play more golf, and better golf, too!

You can access guides to increasing ranges of motion in the key areas, training stability and strength and learning how to move with quality rotation here: Training Quality Rotation.

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Nick Randall is a Strength and Conditioning Coach, Presenter and Rehab Expert contracted by PGA Tour Players, Division 1 colleges and national teams to deliver his unique brand of golf fitness services. Nick is also a GravityFit Brand Ambassador. He is working with them to help spread their innovative message throughout the golf world and into other sports.



  1. Pingback: Rotation in the golf swing is about quality, not quantity | GolfWRX | 40100sports

  2. Larry

    Feb 23, 2015 at 10:35 pm

    You want to see how much turn you really need?? Next time a PGA or Dot COm. tournament comes your way and D J Trahan is playing go to the driving range on a Tuesday or Wednesday and and watch D J Trahan hit drives 300 yards and irons as stright and high as anyone with a turn you would meaure in inches….

  3. Barry S.

    Feb 23, 2015 at 2:58 pm

  4. dcorun

    Feb 23, 2015 at 2:55 pm

    Trying to over rotate especially when you get older only makes things worse. It’s the same as trying to take the club back as far as John Daly. I was trying to turn my left shoulder over my right foot and my belt buckle facing 45* and so on. Your game will go to hell. Rotate as far as you feel comfortable and can still keep good form. For myself, I’ve found that my game has gotten better even at 62 since I started doing that. I’m making a better swing and hitting the center of the clubface more often which increases your distance. This was a really good article, Thanks Nick.

  5. Barry S.

    Feb 23, 2015 at 2:00 pm

    What is the purpose of the rotation? I took lessons from Mike Austin over the course of 5 years and got to know and play with Mike Dunaway. Austin described the swing as a circle. There is a center, a radius and a circumference.

    The purpose of the pivot is to separate the club head from the ball. Shorter shots require less separation. The speed is on the circumference and not the radius (left arm).

    Good luck making solid contact and creating club head speed by trying to make the radius go fast by torquing and un-torquing. A recipe for back trouble.

  6. Bob

    Feb 23, 2015 at 12:34 pm

    I’m puzzled by the statement that the thoracic spine is one of the three most mobile areas in the body. My understanding is it’s one of the least mobile. The attachment of the ribs hinders movement, in general. Flexion, extension, and rotation are all limited by that and the orientation of articular facets in that region. The freest movement is lateral bending, but there isn’t much of that, either.

  7. Jay

    Feb 23, 2015 at 9:27 am

    Very interesting – well written

  8. Gorden

    Feb 23, 2015 at 1:04 am

    Turn, turn, turn….funny I see older, guys like myself, using a Don Trahan limited turn upright swing or the Graves Moe Norman swing hitting the ball just as far as the middle age and younger guys worrying about how much turn you can get into your swing. Clue guys, as you get older your arm strength lasts a lot longer then your ability to make a rotary type swing work.

  9. Eli Yates

    Feb 22, 2015 at 11:48 pm

    I like this article because I feel like I am not overly flexible… even to the point that I dont take the club back that far but I do feel like I make a good turn off the ball and then my move into the ball is above average I think. so I still get good distance with my swing. I am working on becoming more flexible but its not something that happens over night. In my mind im swinging like Adam Scott in reality it looks like something Charles Barkley had on a bad day.

  10. jonno

    Feb 22, 2015 at 11:11 pm

    vic park learning centre eh

  11. creamy

    Feb 22, 2015 at 8:39 pm

    I didnt know Neil Patrick Harris plays golf too!! Great article

  12. Prime21

    Feb 22, 2015 at 12:51 am

    The quality of rotation is indeed essential, but to say that the quantity is any less important is misleading. Even quality rotation must reach a minimum quantitative value to produce a powerful and efficient swing. Failing to reach the minimum value would have a negative impact on both the swing plane and the kinematic sequence. While I agree that many turn with improper form, I do not think it is fair to imply that if a player loses form when they reach 20 degrees of rotation, then they can stop there and they will still play better golf. Let’s call a spade a spade. Learning to swing like a Tour Professional is hard. To accomplish the task, one must not only turn well, they must do so while turning this much. There simply are no shortcuts.

    • Nick Randall

      Feb 22, 2015 at 6:37 pm

      Hi Prime,

      I agree with you 100%, there is a minimum amount of rotation needed. I was simply advocating firstly that we should focus more on the quality and secondly that golfers would benefit more from improving the quality of their rotation (through corrective exercise and swing drills) rather than simply aiming for more poor quality rotation.

      I hope this helps


  13. Tom Stickney

    Feb 21, 2015 at 8:19 pm

    Good stuff

  14. Prime21

    Feb 21, 2015 at 2:35 pm

    While quality is important, I would not say that it is more important than quantity. Even a quality movement must meet minimal requirements of quantity to be effective. Without these #’s, both the swingplane and kinematic chain, would be greatly effected. This is what makes golf such a tough sport. We are asked to complete multiple movements, at a high rate of speed, all in a short time frame. One needs a combination of many elements in order to play at a high level, consistently. Sacrificing one OR the other, would have a significant negative impact on the overall quality of the swing. In this case I would have to say not only do they help one another, they simply NEED one another.

    • Jeremy

      Feb 23, 2015 at 1:21 pm

      But Prime, quantity without quality can be worse than just a bad swing, it can cause pain and injury to other parts of the body, and that affects life beyond golf. I get your point that for an optimal golf swing at a high level, both are critical. But golfers should learn how to do the right thing versus the wrong thing for their bodies, and then work on increasing that motion.

    • Alex

      Feb 23, 2015 at 1:52 pm

      Quality leads to consistent ball striking which leads to better scores. Most golfers would sacrifice 20 yards if they could hit their target line 4x as often. Golf has a simple solution for more distance: more club; but a different club won’t improve your accuracy.

  15. capbozo

    Feb 21, 2015 at 12:42 pm

    Great article. This really came into focus a couple of weeks ago when both JB Holmes and John Daly were both playing well. Their turns away from the ball couldn’t be more different in terms of rotation but both were absolutely killing it. Those two swings alone are absolute proof of your quality over quantity premise.

    I was wondering if you would give your thoughts about how knee flex — particularly in the right knee — affects the quality of ones thoracic rotation. I feel like I get into trouble when I get away from feeling like I’m sitting through the take-away. Jim Colbert (old school) always seemed to be working on this.


  16. Chris Nickel

    Feb 21, 2015 at 12:18 pm

    Great article here Nick! Well done!

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Kyle Berkshire’s long drive wisdom wins!



This one is a doozie! So many awesome elements to take away from Kyle Berkshire and implement them immediately in your golf swing for effortless power in the swing. From the set up with strong grip to the timing mechanism to start the action and give it a heavy flow, to the huge backswing and massive load in the ground in the transition to the deepest delivery towards the target there is in the sport! Watch and learn long ball wisdom right here.

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Stickney: Correctly auditing your ballflight without technology



One of the biggest advances in golf instruction, in my opinion, was the adoption (by the masses) of the “new ball-flight laws.” While this information was first identified in “The Search for the Perfect Swing” as well as “The Golfing Machine” books it was not truly taught in the mainstream by teachers until the last decade. In fact, there are still millions of golfers who are still in the dark as it pertains to how curvature is created.

Thankfully, launch monitors have become more popular and now most people have some type of ability to hit balls using Trackman, etc., and this has helped inform the masses as to what is really happening during the impact interval. In today’s article, I want to show you how to audit your ball-flight if you DO NOT have access to a launch monitor. And if you’ll ask yourself these few simple questions you will have a much better idea as to what is happening and why your ball is doing what it’s doing!

“The New Ball-Flight Rules”

  • The ball begins mostly in the direction of the face angle direction at impact (Face Angle)
  • The ball will curve away from the path with a centered hit on the face (Path)
  • The amount of curvature at the apex is mostly determined by the difference in direction between where the face points at impact and the direction of the path at impact (Face to Path)
  • The impact point on the clubface can render the above obsolete or exaggerate it depending on where it’s impacted on the face (Impact Point)

Now that you know and understand the rules, here’s how you audit your ball’s flight without a launch monitor present…

Find your Impact Point Before Making Any Other Judgements

Before we begin delving deeply into your ball’s flight, let’s first stop for a second and figure out what our impact bias is currently. Yes, everyone has an impact bias—some are more toe-based while others are more heel-sided. It’s just the way it works and it’s mega-important. If you don’t have control of your impact point then all else is moot.
In order to do so, first hit a few balls on a flat lie and spray the face with Dr. Scholl’s spray, then take a look at what you see on the face, where are the marks? I’m not asking you for perfection here, because if you hit it slightly on the toe or slightly on the heel then you’re ok.

However, if your average clustering of shots is extremely biased on the toe or the heel then stop and figure out WHY you are hitting the ball off-center. Until you can contact the ball in the center of the face (within reason) then you will not be able to control your ball’s curvature due to gear effect.

If your impact point clustering is manageable, then ask yourself these three questions to truly understand your ball’s flight…

Number 1: Where did the ball begin?

I want you to draw a straight line from your ball through your target as you see in the left photo in your mind so you now have a “zero” reference. If you need to create this visual on the practice tee then you can put a rope or some string on the ground between the ball and the target creating a straight line from the ball through the rope and onward to the target itself.

Now back to the shot above, as you can see at impact, this player’s ball started slightly LEFT of his target-line—as shown by the arrow in the left frame which depicts the face angle at impact. In the right frame, you can easily see the ball beginning a touch left right from the beginning.

The numbers prove what we discussed earlier

  • The face direction at impact was -2.8 degrees left of the target
  • The ball’s launching direction is -1.7 degrees left of the target

As we know the ball begins mostly in the direction of the face and since the face was left of the target the ball also began slightly leftward as well.

So by paying attention to your ball’s starting direction as it pertains to the “zero line” (or where you’re trying to go) you can guess where the face is pointing at impact.

Number 2: Which direction did the ball curve?

Now, take a second and look at the right frame: We see that the ball curved leftward which means the path had to be more rightward than where the face was pointing at impact. If the ball begins where you want it to start and curves the way you want then you have the face and path in the correct place!

If we want to audit the numbers just to be sure, then let’s take a deeper look:

Trackman shows that the club path was 1.9 degrees right of the target and we just saw that the face was -2.8 degress left of the target on this shot. With centered impact anytime the face direction at impact is left of the path the ball will curve leftward. The negative spin-axis of this shot of -7.9 tells us that the ball is moving to the left as well.

If you want the ball to curve to the left then the path must be further right than that and vice-versa for a fade…pretty simple, right?

Number 3: How Much Did the Ball Curve at The Apex?

Question three is an important one because it helps us to understand what our face to path relationship is doing.

Curvature is created when the face and path point in different directions (with a centered hit) and the bigger the difference between the face and path direction the more the ball will curve…especially as you hit clubs with lower lofts.

Every player wants to see a certain amount of curvature. Some players want very little curve, thus their face to path numbers are very close together while others want more curve and the face to path numbers are larger. It does not matter what amount of curvature you like to “see” as the player…all flights will work. Think Moe Norman on one extreme to Bubba Watson on the other.

To close…

First, you must hit the ball in the center of the face to have a predictable curvature if you hit it all over the face then you invoke gear effect which can exaggerate or negate your face to path relationship.

Second, where did the ball begin? Most players whom draw the ball fear the miss that starts at their target and moves leftward (as depicted in the photo above) this is a FACE issue. The face is left of the TARGET at impact and thus the ball does not begin right enough to begin at the correct portion of the target.

If you hit the ball and it starts correctly but curves too much from right to left then your path is to blame.

Third, if your ball is curving the correct direction then your path is fine, but if it’s doing something other than what you want and you are starting the ball where you want then your path is either too far left or right depending on which way the ball is curving.

Fourth, if your ball curvature at the apex is moving too much and your ball is starting where you want then your path is too far left or right of your face angle at impact exaggerating your face to path ratio. The bigger the difference between these two the more the ball curves (with a centered hit) with all things being equal.

Samples to view

This is a path issue…the ball began correctly but curved too much rightward. Don’t swing so much leftward and the face-to-path will be reduced and the ball will curve less.

This is a great push draw…the ball began correctly and curved the correct amount back to the target

This is a face issue at impact…the ball did not begin far enough to the right before curving back leftward and the target was missed too far to the left

Take your time when auditing your ball’s flight, and I believe you’ll find your way!

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Clement: Should you hinge your wrists early or late in the backswing?




Today’s video is a big one too! So many are wondering when to let the wrists hinge in the backswing; too early and you cut off too much arc and loose width; too late and you throw your center off-kilter and ruin your contact and direction! This video gets you dialed!

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19th Hole