There’s hundreds of different golfers try to putt, but putting really just boils down to two schools of thought. There are those who try to move the putter head “straight back and straight through” along the target line, and those who try to move the putter head on an arc.
Dave Pelz focuses his time and energy on the square-to-square (StS) method, while StanUtley espouses the arc stroke (AS). So which one of these heavyweight short game gurus is right ? Well, there are the positives and negatives to each method, and professional golfers have used both methods successfully.
There are two high-tech tools I use at my putting academy to examine these type of strokes on a biomechanical level: Advanced Motion Measurement’s 3D Motion Analysis System, and the SAM Puttlab by Science & Motion Sports. My putting research data has also been coordinated with the putting data derived from Lanny L. Johnson, M.D. and PGA Tour player Howard Twitty, who have tested more than 150 Tour professionals’ putting strokes during the previous several years. Together, the information we have merged contains the most accurate data to date on square-to-square and arc strokes.
It is my goal within this article to only point out the pros and cons of these strokes based on the data that was uncovered through our putting research. It is your job to decide what stroke works the best for you through experimentation on the putting green.
The pros of each stroke
The square-to-square putting stroke: This stroke has also been called the “pure in-line putting stroke,” which leads one to believe that it is the easiest to use and the most consistent. And if you watch Loren Roberts or George Archer putt, you might believe this to be true.
The square-to-sqaure stroke focuses on making sure the setup is sound, with a golfer’s hands under his shoulders and a body and putter head that is square to the target line at address. From there, the stroke simply moves back and through along the lines established at address.
As that happens, the face of the putter will stay 90 degrees to the target line (or square to your line during the total stroke), thus making the StS stroke very simple for one to conceptualize. Golfers who use the StS stroke are seen on the putting green constantly working on their alignments at address, and putting along a chalk-line or between club shafts in order to audit their path and club face. Mentally, this style makes the 3-foot knee-knockers much easier to digest.
The arc putting stroke: The theory of an arc stroke is to allow golfers to naturally match the motions of their full swing with their putting stroke. Instructors who espouse the arc stroke believe that the inclined nature of the putter shaft, by design, necessitates the inside-square-inside movement of the putter head. As the stroke works into the backswing, the putter head tends to rotate open (as in the full swing), and at impact it returns to square. After impact, it moves back to the inside and begins to close.
The key to this motion is to keep the putter face 90 degrees (perpendicular) to the path of the arc itself. If that sounds difficult, consider this. In the uncompensated arc stroke, the shoulder motion returns the face to square as long as there is no rotation of the putter face in relation to the arc. That’s because the area of the upper back between the shoulder blades is an anatomical arc.
When the shoulder blades move back and forth on the back of the chest, a unique arc is created. This is a result of the geometry of the golfer’s posterior thorax (medical term for upper back of chest), and its movement necessitates little manipulation from the hands and forearms during the stroke. When this occurs, the rotation of the putter head matches the natural arc a golfer possess in the full swing. Thus the full swing and putting stroke are merged as one feeling. Ben Crenshaw and Tiger Woods exemplify this motion beautifully.
The controversy regarding these two putting strokes
- StS theory states that the shaft angle at address does not affect the motion of the putter head, and goes on to say that if the hands hang directly under the shoulders, then the path will always tend to be StS.
- AS theory states that the angle of the club shaft by design innately causes the putter head to move in a slight arc just as your full swing does.
- StS theory states that the face should remain square to the target line naturally, with no physical manipulation of the hands. And if the path is StS, then this will happen naturally.
- AS theory states that the club face cannot stay square to the target line during the entire putting stroke because the putter head works in an arc. Try to keep the path and club head square to the target line, as the StS players try to do, requires a physiological manipulation of your hands, wrists and forearms in order to do so.
- StS theory states that with no putter-head rotation back and through, controlling the ball’s direction will become much easier as ball position is not as crucial.
- AS theory states that strokes with face rotations that match up are 90 degree to the arc’s direction at all times and require no physical manipulations. They are a natural result of the inclined nature of the club shaft at address; thus, directional control will be much easier.
- StS theory states that the putter should be face balanced and have around 2 degrees of loft to make the ball roll and not skid quite as quickly off the start. It must be noted that all balls “skid” off the start. The key is to eliminate as much unnecessary skid as possible.
- AS theory wants a golfer to use some type of toe-hang putter with around 5 degrees of loft. Using an AS stroke is the best solution for someone who wants to get the ball on top of the grass much quicker.
What the data says
Angle of the shaft v. hand position: Testing with the 3D Motion Analysis System has shown that the angle of the shaft, coupled with the player’s physiology, does indeed cause the putter to work on a slight arc very naturally. However, this can be altered greatly by changing one’s set-up posture and putter lie angle, thus placing the hands more under the shoulders. In fact, the more the player bends over at the waist, the flatter the arc and the less putter-head rotation occurs.
The player who stands in a more upright posture will produce a more curved arc, and usually will have more putter-head rotation. The more upright the putter’s lie angle and the more the putter is in the lifeline of the top hand, the less curved its path will be. If the player’s back was 90 degrees to the ground, it would be very possible for his arc to be almost straight back and straight through with no manipulations necessary.
The conclusion: Every natural, non-manipulated putting stroke has some degree of arc. The only way to eliminate this arc would be to set the body in a very bent-over posture and/or make a stroke manipulation during the transition period of the stroke. The key is to minimize the amount of arc that you have within your own putting stroke. To do so, you must assume an address position that places your eyes over the ball, your hands under your shoulders, as well as one that set you up with the proper amount of forward bending when you approach the ball with a properly fit putter.
Square to Square vs. Arc Stroke dynamics
In biomechanical testing, the StS stroke is much more difficult to perform than originally thought. It requires intentional rotation of the putter face to take it away closed on the back swing and open after impact to stay square on the follow through. It is, in fact, a reverse parabolic curve that looks like the inside of a saucer. However, some elite putters achieve a straight putter path on the forward swing by looping the putter head to the inside and then at the end of the backswing bringing it down over the top to accommodate a straight path to the ball.
Minimizing the magnitude of the arc would provide a better opportunity to deliver the putter head to square at impact. And the Sam Putt Lab has shown that a “straight-back-and-straight-though” putter-head path is possible, but it requires a manipulation of the putter as discussed above. Biomechanical studies have recently shown that no PGA Tour player recorded has a putter path that was exactly straight back and straight through. Thus, it is natural to have a slight arc to the putter-head path due to the inclined nature of the putter shaft by design. However, a very important negative of the arc stroke to consider is that this arc can be over exaggerated very easily with a poor putter fit, additional hand action and/or extreme shoulder rotation during the stroke. You must remember that this over rotation stems from overactive forearm rotation.
Biomechanical 3D Motion Analysis studies have shown that when you form a triangle with your arms and the putter grip, it is impossible to rotate the putter face with your glenohumeral joint (upper arm) or the scapula independently or together. If you allow any of these things to happen your arc stroke will implode!
The conclusion: The less curvature a stroke has, the easier it is to control the putter. But in all players, there is naturally some type of arc to the stroke unless a manipulation is made during the transition. Use your set-up posture, putter fit and putter type help to determine the shape of your stroke innately.
No face rotation vs. natural face rotation
SAM shows that it is more effective to minimize the amount of putter-head rotation you have naturally and to keep your putter head perpendicular to the arc you are using. Simply stated, the more manipulations you possess within your stroke the more the inconsistencies you will have to overcome in the end. This is not to say that you cannot putt well with either stroke type, but you must make the proper compensations in order to make them work.
The rotation of the putter head is measured relative to the player’s arc. Zero rotation is when the putter face remains square to the arc at any given point throughout the swing. In other words, the rotation is measured at any given point on the arc and should remain perpendicular to the tangent of the arc. The elite PGA Tour putters have minimal rotation of the putter path. Most will open the putter face less than 6 degrees on the back stroke and close less than 6 degrees on the follow through. The very best putters have less than 1 degree of rotation in both directions. To reemphasize, this is independent of the nature of their arc.
StS putters come over the top during their transitions to put the putter head on a straight through line and tend to “hang on” through impact to reduce the natural actions of the putter head wanting to close through impact. This is the reason why a face-balanced putter tends to work best for these types of players, due to its aversion to closing through impact. AS putters must make sure that within their strokes their hands and forearm rotation do not take over (as we see in the example below), or over-rotation of the putter head will result making it harder to control the ball’s starting direction.
The face alignment at impact transmits 83 percent of error to the ball and is five times more important than your stroke’s path while putting.
2 degrees of loft vs. 5 degrees of loft
The most important discovery within the last few years within the ranks of putting lies within the ability for us to track the ball’s skid and roll just after impact. Golfers can do everything just right with either stroke type, but if they have the wrong rise angle and/or dynamic putter loft at impact they will NEVER be a good putter. The final key is to have the ball leaving the face correctly and rolling very quickly after impact. And this fact is controlled by the rise angle of your putter head and the dynamic loft of your putter at impact.
Rise angle shows how much the putter is moving up or down through the ball in relation to the bottom of its vertical arc as viewed from the side of the ball.
Dynamic loft is measured by taking the factory loft of your putter plus/minus the shaft angle at impact. Example 1 (pictured below) shows a TaylorMade Rossa being used that is designed with 4 degrees of loft, and the player returns it to impact with + 0 degrees of added/reduced loft, thus the putter maintains its original 4 degrees of loft. And when it comes to the loft of your putter, several things must be taken into account: your spine angle (side to side), your center of gravity, the amount of hand action you have and the center of gravity of the putter you currently use.
In a perfect world, with greens running about 10 to 11 on the stimpmeter, the data suggests that your dynamic loft should be around 2-to-3 degrees and your rise angle should be about 3-to-4 degrees in order to give you the best roll possible. When the rise angle is slightly greater than the dynamic loft of the putter, the ball will begin to roll very quickly off the start as shown below.
In Example 2 (above), the TMAG putter used had 4 degrees of static loft and the player added 3.1 degrees of loft at impact for a total dynamic loft of 7.1 degrees. When the rise angle (6.4) is lower than your dynamic loft at impact (7.1), the ball will jump into the air just after impact, bounce, skid and the begin to roll. This lowers your consistency. The key is to match your putter’s static loft to your stroke type for the greens you normally play.
Whether you use a StS or an AS is of no consequence as it pertains to the ball’s skid and roll. The determining factor of your ball’s actions just after impact are 100 percent determined by your set-up fundamentals, which influence your impact alignments. Matching the putter’s static loft and center of gravity (by design) at address with your impact shaft angle during impact is the key to making the ball roll just after impact.
All these factors considered, the bottom line for direction remains to be able to answer this question in the affirmative, “Was the putter square to the target at impact?”
Kyle Berkshire’s long drive wisdom wins!
This one is a doozie! So many awesome elements to take away from Kyle Berkshire and implement them immediately in your golf swing for effortless power in the swing. From the set up with strong grip to the timing mechanism to start the action and give it a heavy flow, to the huge backswing and massive load in the ground in the transition to the deepest delivery towards the target there is in the sport! Watch and learn long ball wisdom right here.
Stickney: Correctly auditing your ballflight without technology
One of the biggest advances in golf instruction, in my opinion, was the adoption (by the masses) of the “new ball-flight laws.” While this information was first identified in “The Search for the Perfect Swing” as well as “The Golfing Machine” books it was not truly taught in the mainstream by teachers until the last decade. In fact, there are still millions of golfers who are still in the dark as it pertains to how curvature is created.
Thankfully, launch monitors have become more popular and now most people have some type of ability to hit balls using Trackman, etc., and this has helped inform the masses as to what is really happening during the impact interval. In today’s article, I want to show you how to audit your ball-flight if you DO NOT have access to a launch monitor. And if you’ll ask yourself these few simple questions you will have a much better idea as to what is happening and why your ball is doing what it’s doing!
“The New Ball-Flight Rules”
- The ball begins mostly in the direction of the face angle direction at impact (Face Angle)
- The ball will curve away from the path with a centered hit on the face (Path)
- The amount of curvature at the apex is mostly determined by the difference in direction between where the face points at impact and the direction of the path at impact (Face to Path)
- The impact point on the clubface can render the above obsolete or exaggerate it depending on where it’s impacted on the face (Impact Point)
Now that you know and understand the rules, here’s how you audit your ball’s flight without a launch monitor present…
Find your Impact Point Before Making Any Other Judgements
Before we begin delving deeply into your ball’s flight, let’s first stop for a second and figure out what our impact bias is currently. Yes, everyone has an impact bias—some are more toe-based while others are more heel-sided. It’s just the way it works and it’s mega-important. If you don’t have control of your impact point then all else is moot.
In order to do so, first hit a few balls on a flat lie and spray the face with Dr. Scholl’s spray, then take a look at what you see on the face, where are the marks? I’m not asking you for perfection here, because if you hit it slightly on the toe or slightly on the heel then you’re ok.
However, if your average clustering of shots is extremely biased on the toe or the heel then stop and figure out WHY you are hitting the ball off-center. Until you can contact the ball in the center of the face (within reason) then you will not be able to control your ball’s curvature due to gear effect.
If your impact point clustering is manageable, then ask yourself these three questions to truly understand your ball’s flight…
Number 1: Where did the ball begin?
I want you to draw a straight line from your ball through your target as you see in the left photo in your mind so you now have a “zero” reference. If you need to create this visual on the practice tee then you can put a rope or some string on the ground between the ball and the target creating a straight line from the ball through the rope and onward to the target itself.
Now back to the shot above, as you can see at impact, this player’s ball started slightly LEFT of his target-line—as shown by the arrow in the left frame which depicts the face angle at impact. In the right frame, you can easily see the ball beginning a touch left right from the beginning.
The numbers prove what we discussed earlier
- The face direction at impact was -2.8 degrees left of the target
- The ball’s launching direction is -1.7 degrees left of the target
As we know the ball begins mostly in the direction of the face and since the face was left of the target the ball also began slightly leftward as well.
So by paying attention to your ball’s starting direction as it pertains to the “zero line” (or where you’re trying to go) you can guess where the face is pointing at impact.
Number 2: Which direction did the ball curve?
Now, take a second and look at the right frame: We see that the ball curved leftward which means the path had to be more rightward than where the face was pointing at impact. If the ball begins where you want it to start and curves the way you want then you have the face and path in the correct place!
If we want to audit the numbers just to be sure, then let’s take a deeper look:
Trackman shows that the club path was 1.9 degrees right of the target and we just saw that the face was -2.8 degress left of the target on this shot. With centered impact anytime the face direction at impact is left of the path the ball will curve leftward. The negative spin-axis of this shot of -7.9 tells us that the ball is moving to the left as well.
If you want the ball to curve to the left then the path must be further right than that and vice-versa for a fade…pretty simple, right?
Number 3: How Much Did the Ball Curve at The Apex?
Question three is an important one because it helps us to understand what our face to path relationship is doing.
Curvature is created when the face and path point in different directions (with a centered hit) and the bigger the difference between the face and path direction the more the ball will curve…especially as you hit clubs with lower lofts.
Every player wants to see a certain amount of curvature. Some players want very little curve, thus their face to path numbers are very close together while others want more curve and the face to path numbers are larger. It does not matter what amount of curvature you like to “see” as the player…all flights will work. Think Moe Norman on one extreme to Bubba Watson on the other.
First, you must hit the ball in the center of the face to have a predictable curvature if you hit it all over the face then you invoke gear effect which can exaggerate or negate your face to path relationship.
Second, where did the ball begin? Most players whom draw the ball fear the miss that starts at their target and moves leftward (as depicted in the photo above) this is a FACE issue. The face is left of the TARGET at impact and thus the ball does not begin right enough to begin at the correct portion of the target.
If you hit the ball and it starts correctly but curves too much from right to left then your path is to blame.
Third, if your ball is curving the correct direction then your path is fine, but if it’s doing something other than what you want and you are starting the ball where you want then your path is either too far left or right depending on which way the ball is curving.
Fourth, if your ball curvature at the apex is moving too much and your ball is starting where you want then your path is too far left or right of your face angle at impact exaggerating your face to path ratio. The bigger the difference between these two the more the ball curves (with a centered hit) with all things being equal.
Samples to view
This is a path issue…the ball began correctly but curved too much rightward. Don’t swing so much leftward and the face-to-path will be reduced and the ball will curve less.
This is a great push draw…the ball began correctly and curved the correct amount back to the target
This is a face issue at impact…the ball did not begin far enough to the right before curving back leftward and the target was missed too far to the left
Take your time when auditing your ball’s flight, and I believe you’ll find your way!
Clement: Should you hinge your wrists early or late in the backswing?
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Today’s video is a big one too! So many are wondering when to let the wrists hinge in the backswing; too early and you cut off too much arc and loose width; too late and you throw your center off-kilter and ruin your contact and direction! This video gets you dialed!
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