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Opinion & Analysis

What makes a good golf course?



What is the best golf course you’ve ever played? What is your favorite course? Your least favorite?

After you take a minute to ponder those questions, consider this: Why? What is it about the course you chose that you like or dislike?

Very often, golfers get a feeling about a golf course, and they can’t really say why. That why I want golfers to take a closer look at the golf courses they play, because there are very definitive features about every golf course that separates it from others.

For many years I was a course rater for Golf Digest’s top 100 courses. Their system is as objective and fair as can be, but there will always be certain subjectivity to rating golf courses, because every golf course is unique and they all have design features that make them so. Some courses are inland and some are seaside, while others are quite flat or hilly. But from a playing perspective, let’s take a look at some features that you see every time you play but may not have noticed.

No. 12 at Augusta National Golf Club.

Conditioning: This is rather obvious. Is the course in good shape? Budget is obviously a factor — Augusta National has a bit more to work with than your local muni.

Routing: This is one of the most important design features of any course. Which direction do the holes play? Every golf course has a prevailing wind for the golf season in that area, and most architects take this into consideration. Start with the par 3s; do they play in different directions to allow use of every wind condition (Pine Valley)? Do the holes play in a variety of directions and lengths so golfers do not have to play a group of similar holes in succession: (Pinehurst #2). The lack of land on links courses very often dictates that the holes play out to the 9th hole and back into to the 18th. On inland or “Parkland” courses, the architect can route the holes so they play in a variety of directions, because playing every long par-4 playing in the same direction tends to get old.

Ian Poulter playing No. 13 at Merion GC in the 2013 U.S. Open.

Ian Poulter playing No. 13 at Merion GC in the 2013 U.S. Open.

Design: The next time you play a hole and see bunkers or water hazards, ask yourself why the designer put them there. If the hole is calling for a long iron or hybrid, the green might be long and open in front. A short hole, by contrast, might have a small, well bunkered green expecting wedge shot approaches (No. 13 at Merion). This is another reason to play the tee markers your length allows; you should not be hitting hybrids to a small, protected green.

Also, take a look at the green complexes (greens, bunkers, slopes) and see what way they face. Are they angled to the right or left of the fairway? Why does it matter? Well, consider the hole shape; the green should be angled to a direction that would reward the best tee shot. If you play a long dogleg-right and you fly the bunker guarding the right side; a good, fair course would likely design the green facing the right to create a clear shot in. It would simply be unfair to angle the green to the left, because your risk was not rewarded.

Short holes may have very narrow fairways, and longer holes should give us a little room off the tee. It is true that the designer often has to work with whatever the land offers (budget dictates how much earth can be moved). But when whenever possible, these features make a golf course a little more fair and fun for everybody. If the golf course is wide open with very few hazards actually in play, the greens may be undulating, and well protected (this is why Augusta National plays so much more difficult now). Green complexes often complement the design.

Consider a Cape Hole: No. 6 at the Bay Hill Club. You can cut off as much as you’d like, but it comes at a risk. If you can cut off 50 yards more than me, your location should get some reward. It’s all about angles and playing to optimum spots for your next shot.

No. 17 at The Olympic Club.

Pete Dye is a master at this and the way he disguises it. Consider a fairway sloped severely from right to left; (No. 17 at Olympic Club). If every ball is bound to end up left side, it might not be fair to play into a green sloped or angled to right side. Or the famous short, often driveable par 4 like No. 17 at TPC Scottsdale, which is a fun hole for everybody with great penalty for not pulling off the career drive. There are so many designs, and they are too numerous to mention. These are just a few examples to get you to look at the golf course through more “strategic” eyes.

Variety: The best courses have a mix of doglegs, straight holes, long and short ones, all playing in every direction possible. I played a course once that had 13 doglegs out of 14 driving holes: another where every par 3 measured more than 200 yards and was over water! And of course we often get municipal courses that play up and back, up and back (to save land use). But these golf courses lack variety. At this year’s U.S. Open at Merion, for example, the par 3s played from 98 yards to 255!

No. 7 at Pebble Beach Golf Links.

No. 7 at Pebble Beach Golf Links.

Continuity: Take all those different holes, but somehow they all go together on this property! They form one great piece of landscape art. This is the problem sometimes with the “Replica” course (designs of famous holes throughout the course). Every hole might be a good design, but the holes simply don’t belong on the same golf course!

Shot Making: Does the golf course require high shots, low ones, fades and draws? Does it force the player to use every club? When you have to come in low, does it allow you run the ball; or when you have to come in high to stop the ball?

These are just some of the ways you can look at a golf course and begin to realize why the great ones are truly great, and why there are so very few of them. Of course we can’t all play Pebble Beach every day, but even at your home course you’ll learn to appreciate design and see that it is not some random selection by the architect. I’d love to hear some of your favorite course and take a minute to explain why.

As always, feel free to send a swing video to my Facebook page and I will do my best to give you my feedback.

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Dennis Clark is a PGA Master Professional. Clark has taught the game of golf for more than 30 years to golfers all across the country, and is recognized as one of the leading teachers in the country by all the major golf publications. He is also is a seven-time PGA award winner who has earned the following distinctions: -- Teacher of the Year, Philadelphia Section PGA -- Teacher of the Year, Golfers Journal -- Top Teacher in Pennsylvania, Golf Magazine -- Top Teacher in Mid Atlantic Region, Golf Digest -- Earned PGA Advanced Specialty certification in Teaching/Coaching Golf -- Achieved Master Professional Status (held by less than 2 percent of PGA members) -- PGA Merchandiser of the Year, Tri State Section PGA -- Golf Professional of the Year, Tri State Section PGA -- Presidents Plaque Award for Promotion and Growth of the Game of Golf -- Junior Golf Leader, Tri State section PGA -- Served on Tri State PGA Board of Directors Clark is also former Director of Golf and Instruction at Nemacolin Woodlands Resort. He now directs his own school, The Dennis Clark Golf Academy at the JW Marriott Marco Island in Naples, Fla.. He can be reached at



  1. Nick

    Aug 12, 2016 at 10:46 pm

    I was just googling “what makes a great golf course” and things like that when I came across this article. Just wanted to say that I enjoyed the article and your criteria. I have played a lot of golf courses across the country, and while the classic golf courses are cool for their history, a lot of them are lacking when it comes to creativity. They are all straight back and straight through. and sure dog legs are cool but most of the time its essentially the same thing only with a little bend in the hole. I like to see a designers imagination. I love when designers give you options off the tee. They give you a safe tee shot, just expect a more difficult angle. I personally enjoy golf courses that allow many options when entering the green and have some large undulations in or around them in the form of mounding. so if you take that easier tee shot and have the more difficult angle, you might have to run it up the left and let a mound roll it next to a right cut hole guarded by a pond. Its always fun to hit a shot 20 yards left of the hole and have it end ten feet to the right of the cup. That’s what story’s and a great time are made of. It also rewards a properly executed golf shot, and a well thought out plan for the hole. I especially enjoy it when creativity is rewarded. so say that there is a pond left and you can bounce it of a mound on the right of the green. It just adds to the course in my opinion.

    Okay so after all of this, Id like to say that my favorite golf course to play is one that’s pretty far away. It has a brilliant layout that features amazing views and a plethora of options off each tee and every approach shot into its greens have more then one choice. I really do highly recommend this course to anyone and everyone who reads this comment. Its also my first comment of any sort because I’m not one to do this but I just thought I should get my voice out there. The course is called the Quarry in Minnesota. It is the number 1 public course in the state according to golf digest and is the number 25 public course in the nation (last year number 20). Beautiful views and a layout that could not compliment the naturally rugged terrain of the course any better. Every hole forms one more tile of this masterfully built mosaic in northern Minnesota.

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  3. robert horneman

    Aug 5, 2013 at 9:05 am

    My ranking of US courses are: #1 Olympic, #2Rivera, #3 LACC. Never played any top ranked courses east of AZ.
    My favorites in Europe are the European club, Waterville, Lahinch, Tralee, Balybunion ,Old Head , Kingsbarns and Royal Portmarnick.
    Played the Old Course ,loved the history and the 17th hole. The rest of the course was pretty boring except watching some old Scots playing golf with their dogs following them. I guess the dogs can go into the Gorse to find their lost ball!

  4. Martin

    Aug 2, 2013 at 9:05 pm

    Royal County Down is a fantastic course! Full of beauty, tradition and wonderful, natural design. I would also like to mention The Glashedy Links (Ballyliffin GC). A modern, demanding links course designed by a man who really knows the game and links golf: Nick Faldo.

  5. Ritch Gallagher

    Aug 1, 2013 at 9:38 am

    I have played a lot of courses over the years. My favorite place to play in the US is Bandon. I have played three of the four courses, need to make another trip, and they have the ingredients I like. Walkable, encourage the ground game and bring links golf to the States. Oakland Hills, The Prince course at Princeville in Hawaii, Carnoustie and the Stadium course at PGA West have to rank as the most difficult courses I have played.

  6. Regis Staley

    Jul 31, 2013 at 6:02 pm

    I rate the Black Course as one of the best. In reality though you have to be in good shape to walk it and truly enjoy it. Maidstone and National unforgettable. But my hands down favorite is Old Head on the southern tip of Ireland. Nothing I’ve ever played compares. In Myrtle its Heritage and I have played them all. I look for the architecture and the experience. How did the architect use the natural layout. What type of mix is there on the par 3s, 4s and 5s. A Short Par 4 with a dogleg followed by a long straight par 5. Can I be talked into playing another 18?

  7. Bill Ziegler

    Jul 31, 2013 at 4:51 pm

    I have been fortunate enough to play a lot of golf in a lot of wonderful places. To me, my five favorite courses are as follows – Cruden Bay (Scotland), Royal Dornoch (Scotland), Pacific Dunes (Oregon), Harbor Town (South Carolina) and Theodore Wirth (The Muny I grew up playing in Minneapolis).

    You have to have a soft spot for the course where you learned the game.

  8. Jim

    Jul 31, 2013 at 4:40 pm

    I’ve played some very nice courses in Canada, USA, Mexico, and Europe but the one I played 100+ times/yr trumped the 2 leading complaints of the working class golfer… “costs too much and takes too long”. It was a nicely conditioned 5100yd par 65 course; 9 par 3’s, 7 par 4’s, and 2 par 5’s. I’d usually play after work & dinner and it took me 2.5 hrs walking. I’ve since moved too far away with only highly ranked ‘monsters’ in the area so I don’t play nearly as much any more. Playing the forward tees at the longer courses doesn’t shorten the playing time as I still have to follow high handicappers playing the wrong tees (I’m a 6.2) for 4+ hours. I seldom have the time nor budget to play these ‘favorite’ or highly ranked courses. So my ‘favorite’ course has to be the one I played most often.

  9. Brian

    Jul 29, 2013 at 4:24 pm

    I’d say design, variety, and conditioning, in that order, are my top factors. I think another attribute to consider might be history. Most courses with history tend to be well conditioned, but history can certainly make up some for any lack in design and variety. Knowing that the greatest golfers to have played the game walked the same grounds you’re walking and remembering some of the greatest shots and moments from the game’s history are awesome feelings.

    A course that I really enjoy playing in my neck of the woods is a Mike Strantz design called Tot Hill Farm in Asheboro, NC. Many would probably know his more popular Pinehurst design, Tobacco Road. Tot Hill Farm is every bit as scenic and dramatic, but a lot less gimmicky, and a consistently more difficult test of golf.

  10. Damien

    Jul 29, 2013 at 3:44 pm

    I’ve played a number of the top 100 courses in the U.S. and consider the River Course @ Black Wolf Run to be the “best” parkland style course I’ve played. Only complaint: Par 3 13th which requires a righty to hit a draw or a lefty to hit a fade / cut with a long-iron with no bail out area.

    Worst: Minebrook Golf Club in Hackettstown, NJ.

  11. Mats "Pump 2"

    Jul 29, 2013 at 1:34 am

    As I’m from Sweden, I havn’t played many US courses, the best one I’ve played to my mind is Torrey Pines South and North course. In Europe, one of my all time favourite courses is Dunluke Course at Royal Portrush. In Sweden: I have to go with Bro Hof, Stadium Course, hosts the Scandinavian Masters on European Tour, a course in mint condition. Over and out! 🙂

  12. Sean

    Jul 27, 2013 at 2:48 pm

    I think for the average golfer a course that allows you to play the ball on the ground. Many modern course designs require forced carries that many average golfers can’t navigate (180 to 200 yard range).

  13. Martin

    Jul 26, 2013 at 9:08 pm

    I am not a scratch bomber so I don’t need the course to be brutally hard, I like to walk and have a bad knee so long very steep hills in either direction are no fun for me.

    I like a mix of holes, some hard, some easier, the biggest things to me is consistencly of turf, sand and greens and having a bailout area on very long carries. Extremely fast greens are no fun for me, particularly on a course I don’t play very often.

    I don’t really have an absolute favourite course, Eagle Creek outside Ottawa is pretty great, redtail Landing near Edmonton and Raven at Verrado near Phoenix are memorable for me.

  14. george

    Jul 25, 2013 at 5:45 pm

    national golf links of america southhampton ny – there is no better golf course
    the worst course ive played ……… the woods at cherry creek riverhead long island – are you kidding me ???????????

    • george

      Jul 25, 2013 at 5:50 pm

      bethpage black is quite overrated as is the entire complex of 5 courses

      • Anthony

        Jul 26, 2013 at 9:09 am

        I totally disagree. Especially as someone who live five minutes from the complex.

        You have one of the best courses in the country with Black (public or otherwise). Black has it’s faults, like a lack of a finishing hole, but realistically if that tee shot isn’t in the fairway, the rough is so thick and the bunkers right and left make it an impossible approach to a domed, uphill, well protected green. My biggest gripe with Black is the walk up 15. Even after you putt and walk off the green the walk up to the 16th tee takes a lot out of you. But I love that course.

        The Red there has so much character and offers long, short, east, and challenging holes that allow you to use every club in your golf bag. You can also play many of the holes several different ways. This is probably one of my favorite golf courses.

        The Blue offers one of the most challenging front 9’s out there. As a matter of fact, I hate the front 9 on blue because I have tremendous difficulty with it. Just last Friday I went out in 51 and came in with a 40 (I play to a 13). Sure the back gets easier and shorter, but again, the course allows you to play every club in your bag and multiple types of shots.

        The Green and Yellow are two short courses. But make no mistake they can bite you in the rear end. The Green and Yellow courses greens are challenging to make up for the lack of length. There are subtle slopes that I have trouble picking up. You think the putt is going straight and then it breaks one way or another.

        I mean know disrespect by disagreeing with you. Between the five courses at Bethpage and the three courses at Eisenhower, LI golfers have seven really good municipal course to keep in their summer rotation and never get bored. It’s where I play 90% of my rounds, so I understand I can be a little bit of a homer on this one.

      • Dennis Clark

        Jul 26, 2013 at 12:49 pm

        George: Tell us what it is you don’t like about Black, perhaps in the context of my article

      • Abu Dhabi Golfer

        Jul 29, 2013 at 11:20 am

        Having played over 300 courses in over 20 countries, Bethpage (Black) is the 3rd best inland course I have ever played – behind Sunningdale (Old) in England, and Royal Melbourne (West) in Australia.

        Some peoples’ standards are just way too high!!! LOL

    • Dennis Clark

      Jul 26, 2013 at 12:50 pm

      What is specifically about national that makes it the best IYO?

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Opinion & Analysis

How valuable is hitting the fairway, really?



Hitting more than 50 percent of fairways has long been considered a good goal for amateur golfers. The winners on the PGA Tour tend to hit 70 percent. I have long maintained, however, that it is not the number of fairways HIT that matters. Instead, it is the relative severity of fairways MISSED.

Think about it. By the one-dimensional Fairways Hit stat, every miss is the same. A perfect lie in the first cut is exactly the same as a drive in a hazard… or even OB. There is nothing in the 650+ PGA Tour stats about this. In all, there are 60 stats in seven categories that relate to driving performance, but none about penalties! Like PGA Tour players don’t make any?

Let’s see exactly how important the old tried-and-true Driving Accuracy (Percentage of Fairways Hit) really is. To test it, I used two data clusters: the 2017 PGA Tour season (14,845 ShotLink rounds) and my database for the average male golfer (15 to 19 handicappers – 4,027 rounds).

For the graph below, I started with the No. 1-ranked player in the Driving Accuracy category: Ryan Armour. He certainly was accurate by this measure, but why did he only rank 100th in 2017 Strokes Gained Off the Tee with a barely positive 0.020?

Next I looked at the actual top-5 PGA Tour money winners (J. Thomas, J Spieth, D. Johnson, H. Matsuyama and J. Rohm), the 2017 PGA Tour average, and all PGA Tour players that missed the cut in 2017. We all know the significant scoring differences between these three categories of players, but it’s difficult to see a meaningful difference in the fairways hit. They’re not even separated by half a fairway. How important could this stat be?

For those that have not tried, our analysis includes Strokes Gained and Relative Handicap comparisons. That enables users to easily differentiate between FIVE MISS categories below based upon severity. The final three categories are what we consider to be Driving Errors:

  1. Good lie/Opportunity: One can easily accomplish their next goal of a GIR or advancement on a par-5.
  2. Poor Lie/Opportunity: One could accomplish the next goal, but it will require a very good shot.
  3. No Shot: Requires an advancement to return to normal play.
  4. Penalty-1: Penalty with a drop.
  5. OB/Lost: Stroke and distance penalty, or shot replayed with a stroke penalty.

As we are fortunate enough to work with several PGA Tour players at Shot by Shot, we have access to ShotLink data and can provide those clients with the same valuable insight.

Let’s see how the frequency and severity of driving errors relates to the above groups of players (removing Mr. Armour, as he simply helped us prove the irrelevance of Driving Accuracy). The graphs below display the number of Driving Errors per round and the Average Cost Per Error. Note the strong and consistent correlation between the number and the cost of errors at each of the four levels of performance.

Finally, the average cost of the errors is heavily driven by the three degrees of severity outlined above (No Shot, Penalty, OB/Lost). The graph below compares the relative number and cost of the three types of errors for the average golfer and PGA Tour players. The major difference is that PGA Tour players do not seem to have a proper share of OB/Lost penalties. I found only TWO in the 14,000+ ShotLink rounds. While I accept that the most severe faux pas are significantly less frequent on the PGA Tour, I also believe there must have been more than two.

Why so few? First and foremost, PGA Tour players REALLY ARE good. Next, the galleries stop a lot of the wayward shots. And finally, I believe that many of the ShotLink volunteer data collectors may not actually know or care about the difference between a Penalty and OB/Lost.

Author’s Note: If you want to know your Strokes Gained Off the Tee (Driving) and exactly how important your fairways and the misses are, log onto for a 1-Round FREE Trial.

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Opinion & Analysis

Yo GolfWRX: “Are you betting on Tiger Woods to win the Masters?” (Bonus: A March Madness-inspired shot attempt)



Equipment expert Brian Knudson and Editor Andrew Tursky discuss a variety of topics including Tiger Woods being the favorite at The Masters. Also, a Fujikura Pro 2.0 shaft unboxing, Knudson paints the new TG2 studio, and Tursky tries to go viral during March Madness season.

Enjoy the video below!

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Opinion & Analysis

Tiger shoots opening-round 68 at Bay Hill, is now the Masters betting favorite



It’s happening. Tiger Woods is playing good golf, and the Masters hype train is full-steam ahead. After opening at 100-1 odds to win the Masters, Tiger is now the favorite to win at Augusta in 2018, according to Jeff Sherman, an oddsmaker for (according to his Twitter bio).

After 9 holes (he started on the back nine) at the 2018 Arnold Palmer Invitational at Bay Hill — where Tiger has won eight times — he was sitting at 3-under par. What also happened at that time was Sherman updated Tiger as the favorite to win the Masters. Clearly, bettors and Tiger fans had seen all they needed to see in order to put their money down on him winning another Green Jacket in 2018.

Related: See the clubs in Tiger’s bag

On the course’s third hole, however, with water looming left, Tiger hit a foul ball with a 3-wood off the tee and later realized the shot had gone out-of-bounds. Tiger was hot under the collar after hearing the news, and he threw his 3-wood headcover backwards in disgust as he started walking back to the tee to reload. He salvaged double-bogey, and he then made three more birdies coming home to complete his 4-under par round of 68; one of the birdies was a 71-footer after which all Tiger could do was smile.

Woods currently sits in a tie for fifth place, just two shots behind the leader Henrik Stenson.

Can Tiger win at Bay Hill for the ninth time? Will you bet on Tiger as the favorite to win at the Masters? Will Tiger win the Masters?

The questions above would have seemed ridiculous to ask just a month ago, but they’re now legitimate. Welcome back to the spotlight, Tiger.

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19th Hole